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arnold essays This essay, has been adapted from the Project Gutenberg [EBook #37424] of Views and new movie, Reviews , which the road essay change, Ball Publishing Company published in 1908. Chuck Greif and release reviews, the Online Distributed Proofreading Team produced the electronic version. — George P. Landow. A review of Essays in Criticism . By Matthew Arnold, Professor of Poetry in the University of a essay, Oxford. Boston: Ticknor and Fields. 1865. Originally published in North American Review , July, 1865.

Mr. New Movie Release Reviews. Arnold's Essays in great essays for business, Criticism come to American readers with a reputation already made,the reputation of a charming style, a great deal of excellent feeling, and an almost equal amount of questionable reasoning. It is for us either to confirm the verdict passed in the author's own country, or to judge his work afresh. It is often the fortune of release reviews, English writers to find mitigation of sentence in the United States. The Essays contained in this volume are on essays on biomes, purely literary subjects; which is for us, by itself, a strong recommendation. English literature, especially contemporary literature, is, compared with that of France and Germany, very poor in collections of this sort. A great deal of criticism is written, but little of it is kept; little of it is deemed to contain any permanent application. Mr. New Movie. Arnold will doubtless find in application, this factif indeed he has not already signalized itbut another proof of the inferiority of the English to new movie reviews, the Continental school of criticism, and point to it as a baleful effect of the great application, narrow practical spirit which animates, or, as he would probably say, paralyzes, the former. But not only is his book attractive as a whole, from its exclusively literary character; the subject of each essay is new movie moreover particularly interesting. The first paper is on the function of Criticism at the present time; a question, if not more important, perhaps more directly pertinent here than in England.

The second, discussing the literary influence of Academies, contains a great deal of valuable observation and reflection in a small compass and under an inadequate title. The other essays are upon the two De Guerins, Heinrich Heine, Pagan and Medi?val Religious Sentiment, Joubert, Spinoza, and Marcus Aurelius. The first two articles are, to how long essay, our mind, much the reviews, best; the next in great schools, order of excellence is the paper on Joubert; while the others, with the exception, perhaps, of that on Spinoza, are of about equal merit. Mr. Arnold's style has been praised at once too much and too little. Its resources are decidedly limited; but if the release, word had not become so cheap, we should nevertheless call it fascinating. This quality implies no especial force; it rests in this case on the fact that, whether or not you agree with the matter beneath it, the manner inspires you with a personal affection for the author.

It expresses great sensibility, and at the same time great good-nature; it indicates a mind both susceptible and healthy. With the former element alone it would savour of are short, affectation; with the new movie release, latter, it would be coarse. As it stands, it represents a spirit both sensitive and generous. Analagous. We can best describe it, perhaps, by the word sympathetic. It exhibits frankly, and without detriment to its national character, a decided French influence. Mr. Arnold is too wise to attempt to write French English; he probably knows that a language can only be indirectly enriched; but as nationality is new movie release eminently a matter of form, he knows too that he can really violate nothing so long as he adheres to application, the English letter. His Preface is a striking example of the new movie reviews, intelligent amiability which animates his style.

His two leading Essays were, on francis heroes essay, their first appearance, made the subject of much violent contention, their moral being deemed little else than a wholesale schooling of the English press by the French programme. Nothing could have better proved the justice of reviews, Mr. Arnold's remarks upon on biomes, the provincial character of the English critical method than the reception which they provoked. He now acknowledges this reception in a short introduction, which admirably reconciles smoothness of temper with sharpness of wit. The taste of this performance has been questioned; but wherever it may err, it is assuredly not in being provincial; it is essentially civil. New Movie Release Reviews. Mr. Arnold's amiability is, in our eye, a strong proof of his wisdom. If he were a few degrees more short-sighted, he might have less equanimity at his command.

Those who sympathise with him warmly will probably like him best as he is; but with such as are only half his friends, this freedom from party passion, from what is after all but a lawful professional emotion, will argue against his sincerity. For ourselves, we doubt not that Mr. Arnold possesses thoroughly what the French call the courage of his opinions. When you lay down a proposition which is forthwith controverted, it is of course optional with you to take up the cudgels in its defence. If you are deeply convinced of its truth, you will perhaps be content to leave it to heroes essay, take care of itself; or, at all events, you will not go out of your way to push its fortunes; for you will reflect that in the long run an release reviews opinion often borrows credit from the forbearance of its patrons. In the long run, we say; it will meanwhile cost you an occasional pang to see your cherished theory turned into a football by the critics. Great Essays For Business. A football is not, as such, a very respectable object, and the more numerous the players, the more ridiculous it becomes. Unless, therefore, you are very confident of your ability to rescue it from the chaos of kicks, you will best consult its interests by not mingling in the game. New Movie Reviews. Such has been Mr. Arnold's choice.

His opponents say that he is too much of a poet to be a critic; he is certainly too much of a poet to be a disputant. Essays With Analagous. In the Preface in question he has abstained from reiterating any of the views put forth in the two offensive Essays; he has simply taken a delicate literary vengeance upon release, his adversaries. For Mr. Arnold's critical feeling and observation, used independently of his judgment, we profess a keen relish. He has these qualities, at application essays any rate, of a good critic, whether or not he have the others,the science and release reviews, the logic. It is hard to say whether the literary critic is more called upon to understand or to feel. It is certain that he will accomplish little unless he can feel acutely; although it is perhaps equally certain that he will become weak the moment that he begins to work, as we may say, his natural sensibilities. The best critic is probably he who leaves his feelings out of essays, account, and relies upon reason for success.

If he actually possesses delicacy of feeling, his work will be delicate without detriment to its solidity. The complaint of Mr. Arnold's critics is that his arguments are too sentimental. Whether this complaint is well founded, we shall hereafter inquire; let us determine first what sentiment has done for him. New Movie Reviews. It has given him, in essays with analagous titles, our opinion, his greatest charm and his greatest worth. Hundreds of other critics have stronger heads; few, in England at new movie release reviews least, have more delicate perceptions. We regret that we have not the silk over, space to confirm this assertion by extracts. We must refer the new movie, reader to the book itself, where he will find on every page an illustration of our meaning.

He will find one, first of all, in the apostrophe to the University of Oxford, at the close of the Preface,home of lost causes and forsaken beliefs and unpopular names and impossible loyalties. This is doubtless nothing but sentiment, but it seizes a shade of truth, and conveys it with a directness which is application essays for business not at the command of logical demonstration. Such a process might readily prove, with the aid of a host of facts, that the University is actually the abode of much retarding conservatism; a fine critical instinct alone, and the measure of audacity which accompanies such an instinct, could succeed in new movie release reviews, placing her on the side of are short essay answers, progress by boldly saluting her as the Queen of Romance: romance being the deadly enemy of the commonplace; the commonplace being the fast ally of Philistinism, and Philistinism the new movie, heaviest drag upon the march of civilisation. Mr. Arnold is very fond of quoting Goethe's eulogy upon Schiller, to the effect that his friend's greatest glory was to have left so far behind him was uns alle bandigt, das Gemeine , that bane of mankind, the common. Exactly how much the inscrutable Goethe made of you write a essay, this fact, it is release hard at this day to determine; but it will seem to many readers that Mr. Arnold makes too much of it. Perhaps he does, for himself; but for the public in general he decidedly does not. One of the chief duties of criticism is to exalt the importance of the ideal; and silk essay over time, Goethe's speech has a long career in prospect before we can say with the new movie release, vulgar that it is played out. Its repeated occurrence in Mr. Arnold's pages is but another instance of poetic feeling subserving the ends of criticism.

The famous comment upon the girl Wragg, over which the with analagous, author's opponents made so merry, we likewise owewe do not hesitate to declare itto this same poetic feeling. Why cast discredit upon so valuable an instrument of truth? Why not wait at reviews least until it is used in silk change time, the service of error? The worst that can be said of the new movie release reviews, paragraph in question is, that it is a great ado about essays analagous titles, nothing. New Movie. All thanks, say we, to the critic who will pick up such nothings as these; for if he neglects them, they are blindly trodden under foot. They may not be especially valuable, but they are for that very reason the critic's particular care.

Great truths take care of themselves; great truths are carried aloft by philosophers and poets; the critic deals in contributions to you write a essay, truth. Another illustration of the nicety of Mr. Release. Arnold's feeling is furnished by his remarks upon the quality of francis cassavant heroes, distinction as exhibited in Maurice and Eugenie de Guerin, that quality which at last inexorably corrects the world's blunders and fixes the world's ideals, [which] procures that the popular poet shall not pass for a Pindar, the popular historian for a Tacitus, nor the popular preacher for a Bossuet. New Movie Release Reviews. Another is you write a essay offered by new movie release, his incidental remarks upon are short answers, Coleridge, in reviews, the article on Joubert; another, by great for business schools, the remarkable felicity with which he has translated Maurice de Guerin's Centaur ; and another, by the whole body of citations with which, in his second Essay, he fortifies his proposition that the establishment in England of an authority answering to the French Academy would have arrested certain evil tendencies of English literature,for to release, nothing more offensive than this, as far as we can see, does this argument amount. Silk Road Change Time. In the first and most important of his Essays Mr. Arnold puts forth his views upon the actual duty of criticism.

They may be summed up as follows. Criticism has no concern with the practical; its function is simply to new movie reviews, get at the best thought which is current,to see things in themselves as they are,to be disinterested. Criticism can be disinterested, says Mr. Arnold, by keeping from practice; by resolutely following the law of its own nature, which is to be a free play of the mind on all subjects which it touches, by steadily refusing to lend itself to any of those ulterior political, practical considerations about ideas which plenty of people will be sure to attach to them, which perhaps ought often to be attached to them, which in this country, at any rate, are certain to be attached to them, but which criticism has really nothing to do with. Its business is simply to know the best that is known and thought in the world, and, by in application essays for business schools, its turn making this known, to create a current of true and fresh ideas. Its business is to do this with inflexible honesty, with due ability; but its business is to do no more, and to leave alone all questions of practical consequences and new movie release, applications,questions which will never fail to have due prominence given to them. We used just now a word of which Mr. Arnold is very fond,a word of which the general reader may require an explanation, but which, when explained, he will be likely to silk change over, find indispensable; we mean the word Philistine . The term is of German origin, and has no English synonyme. New Movie Release Reviews. At Soli, remarks Mr.

Arnold, I imagined they did not talk of essays with titles, solecisms; and here, at the very head-quarters of Goliath, nobody talks of Philistinism. New Movie Reviews. The word epicier , used by Mr. For Business. Arnold as a French synonyme, is not so good as bourgeois , and to those who know that bourgeois means a citizen, and who reflect that a citizen is a person seriously interested in the maintenance of order, the German term may now assume a more special significance. An English review briefly defines it by release, saying that it applies to essays, the fat-headed respectable public in general. This definition must satisfy us here. New Movie. The Philistine portion of the English press, by which we mean the considerably larger portion, received Mr. Essays With. Arnold's novel programme of criticism with the uncompromising disapprobation which was to be expected from a literary body, the principle of whose influence, or indeed of new movie release, whose being is its subservience, through its various members, to certain political and religious interests. Mr.

Arnold's general theory was offensive enough; but the conclusions drawn by him from the fact that English practice has been so long and road essay time, so directly at new movie variance with it, were such as to excite the strongest animosity. Chief among these was the conclusion that this fact has retarded the development and cassavant essay, vulgarised the character of the English mind, as compared with the French and the German mind. This rational inference may be nothing but a poet's flight; but for ourselves, we assent to it. It reaches us too. The facts collected by Mr. Reviews. Arnold on this point have long wanted a voice. It has long seemed to us that, as a nation, the how long essay, English are singularly incapable of new movie release reviews, large, of high, of general views. They are indifferent to pure truth, to francis essay, la verite vraie . Their views are almost exclusively practical, and it is in release, the nature of practical views to be narrow.

They seldom indeed admit a fact but on compulsion; they demand of an idea some better recommendation, some longer pedigree, than that it is answers true. That this lack of spontaneity in release, the English intellect is caused by the tendency of English criticism, or that it is to be corrected by a diversion, or even by a complete reversion, of this tendency, neither Mr. Arnold nor ourselves suppose, nor do we look upon such a result as desirable. The part which Mr. Arnold assigns to his reformed method of criticism is a purely tributary part. Its indirect result will be to quicken the naturally irrational action of the a essay, English mind; its direct result will be to furnish that mind with a larger stock of ideas than it has enjoyed under the time-honoured Tory of Whig and new movie, Tory, High-Church and Low-Church organs. We may here remark, that Mr.

Arnold's statement of his principles is open to some misinterpretation,an accident against which he has, perhaps, not sufficiently guarded it. For many persons the word practical is almost identical with the word useful , against which, on the other hand, they erect the word ornamental . Persons who are fond of regarding these two terms as irreconcilable, will have little patience with Mr. Arnold's scheme of criticism. They will look upon it as an organised preference of unprofitable speculation to common sense. But the great beauty of the critical movement advocated by Mr. Arnold is that in either direction its range of action is how do a essay unlimited. New Movie Release Reviews. It deals with plain facts as well as with the most exalted fancies; but it deals with them only for essays for business schools the sake of the truth which is in them, and not for your sake, reader, and reviews, that of great schools, your party. New Movie Reviews. It takes high ground , which is the ground of theory. It does not busy itself with consequences, which are all in all to you. Do not suppose that it for this reason pretends to ignore or to francis heroes, undervalue consequences; on the contrary, it is because it knows that consequences are inevitable that it leaves them alone.

It cannot do two things at new movie release once; it cannot serve two masters. Its business is to make truth generally accessible, and not to apply it. It is only on condition of having its hands free, that it can make truth generally accessible. We said just now that its duty was, among other things, to exalt, if possible, the importance of the ideal. We should perhaps have said the intellectual; that is, of the principle of understanding things.

Its business is to urge the claims of all things to be understood. If this is its function in England, as Mr. Arnold represents, it seems to us that it is doubly its function in this country. Here is no lack of votaries of the practical, of experimentalists, of empirics. The tendencies of francis cassavant heroes essay, our civilisation are certainly not such as foster a preponderance of new movie reviews, morbid speculation. Our national genius inclines yearly more and great essays, more to release, resolve itself into a vast machine for sifting, in all things, the wheat from the chaff. American society is so shrewd, that we may safely allow it to make application of the truths of the study. Only let us keep it supplied with the great application essays schools, truths of the study, and not with the half-truths of the forum. Let criticism take the stream of truth at its source, and release reviews, then practice can take it half-way down. When criticism takes it half-way down, practice will come poorly off.

If we have not touched upon the faults of Mr. Arnold's volume, it is because they are faults of detail, and because, when, as a whole, a book commands our assent, we do not incline to quarrel with its parts. Some of the parts in these Essays are weak, others are strong; but the impression which they all combine to leave is one of such beauty as to make us forget, not only their particular faults, but their particular merits. If we were asked what is the particular merit of a given essay, we should reply that it is a merit much less common at the present day than is generally supposed,the merit which pre-eminently characterises Mr. On Biomes. Arnold's poems, the merit, namely, of having a subject . Each essay is about something.

If a literary work now-a-days start with a certain topic, that is all that is required of it; and yet it is a work of art only on new movie reviews, condition of essays, ending with that topic, on condition of new movie reviews, being written, not from it, but to it. If the how do a essay, average modern essay or poem were to wear its title at the close, and not at the beginning, we wonder in new movie release reviews, how many cases the reader would fail to be surprised by essays titles, it. A book or an article is looked upon as a kind of Staubbach waterfall, discharging itself into infinite space. If we were questioned as to the merit of Mr. New Movie. Arnold's book as a whole, we should say that it lay in the fact that the author takes high ground. The manner of his Essays is how do you write a model of reviews, what criticisms should be. The foremost English critical journal, the Saturday Review, recently disposed of a famous writer by saying, in a parenthesis, that he had done nothing but write nonsense all his life. Mr. Arnold does not pass judgment in application for business, parenthesis.

He is too much of an artist to use leading propositions for merely literary purposes. The consequence is, that he says a few things in such a way as that almost in new movie release reviews, spite of ourselves we remember them, instead of a number of things which we cannot for the life of us remember. There are many things which we wish he had said better. It is to be regretted, for instance, that, when Heine is for once in a way seriously spoken of, he should not be spoken of more as the great poet which he is, and which even in New England he will one day be admitted to be, than with reference to the great moralist which he is not, and which he never claimed to be. But here, as in other places, Mr. Essay. Arnold's excellent spirit reconciles us with his shortcomings. New Movie Release Reviews. If he has not spoken of Heine exhaustively, he has at all events spoken of him seriously, which for an Englishman is a good deal. Mr. Arnold's supreme virtue is that he speaks of cassavant, all things seriously, or, in other words, that he is not offensively clever.

The writers who are willing to resign themselves to new movie release, this obscure distinction are in our opinion the only writers who understand their time. How Long Essay. That Mr. Arnold thoroughly understands his time we do not mean to say, for this is the privilege of a very select few; but he is, at any rate, profoundly conscious of his time. This fact was clearly apparent in reviews, his poems, and it is even more apparent in these Essays. It gives them a peculiar character of melancholy,that melancholy which arises from the spectacle of the old-fashioned instinct of enthusiasm in conflict (or at all events in contact) with the modern desire to be fair,the melancholy of an age which not only has lost its naivete , but which knows it has lost it. James, Henry. Views and Reviews . Ed. Le Roy Phillips.

Boston: Ball Publishing Company, 1908. Pp. Francis Cassavant. 83-98.

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My Best Birthday Party Essays and Research Papers. Barbecues ingredients of cake Stage 1 Prepare My Parents’ Birthday Fried chickens Cake Buy ingredients of foods Stage 3 . Share foods Celebrat e Surprise My parents Step 2 Outlining Write an outline for your essay. Introduction Hook: Go to the garden The person that I love the most in the world is my parents who are very important for me every day. Background information: One of the days that we were happy together was my parents’ birthday . My parents were born in the same month. They. Baking , Barbecue , Butter 1326 Words | 5 Pages. “ Birthday Party ” by Katherine Brush uses literary devices such as tone, point of view, diction, and sensory details to new movie release reviews, achieve . her purpose. The title of how long essay answers, this short story is very deceiving the tone is different from the tone of the story. The tone changes from happy to sad as soon as the cake is new movie release, brought out.

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1995 singles , 2000 singles , 2006 albums 1333 Words | 3 Pages. ceremonial speech: Joint birthday party (best friend and mum) ?CTA- PUBLIC SPEAKING: CREMONIAL SPEECH Junior and Mum's Birthday party . It is a great blessing to essays with, have you all here today to . celebrate my mother and best friend’s birthday . It is very special for me to have two very special people in my life share the same birthday , I'm blessed to have them. Release Reviews. My best friend Junior, will be turning 19 while my mother turning 40. Great Application Essays For Business Schools. What a blessing! Time has really moved fast. Junior do you remember when we first met. New Movie Reviews. It was in our first year at analagous titles, kindergarten. I remember.

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REFLECTED BEST SELF EXERCISE Introduction: I am Swapnili Jadhao, student with UTD under Systems Engineering and Management. I am a simple, . happy and passionate person. I like my work and life. I enjoy working with people and facing new challenges at work. The exercise of Reflected Best Self helped me to know views of people for me. I really astonished me to know that people value me and expect good and bright future for me. I had asked for answers the views from around 15 people and 13 of them were really. Debut albums , Decision making , Friendship 1191 Words | 2 Pages. ? My best friend Sam I go to new movie reviews, a school in Sydney, we were sitting in class my friend came to me saying “rami do you . want to go for a smoke at lunch”, I looked at him with anger and didn’t reply he then went and sat back down in are short his chair.

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I have learned to love her from the day I was born. My mother. Birthday , English-language films , Family 1032 Words | 3 Pages. School ??? Unit IV Lesson 1 ??? ??:______________________ ??: _______________________ ????? Project: Create a voki presentation about your . best friend. Requirements: Please describe your best friend and include the essays with, following information: ? who he/she is: include name, age, nationality, school…. ? a physical description of your best friend: use at least eight adjectives. ? his/her hobby (what he/she likes to release reviews, do ) ? food he/she enjoys ? his/her favorite color ( use … ) ? anything.

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. Reviews. Flying papers , multi colours of balloon, delicated blossom, fantastic people, love and laughter. What it describes? Its Your HAPPY . BIRTHDAY 2. MAY U B WOT U HOPE TO B, C ALL U WANT TO C. DO ALL WOT U WANT TO MAY YR EVERY WISH COMES TRUE. A VERY HAPPY BIRTHDAY TO U 3. Kick off ur shoes,take a break,Crank the essay answers, tunes,Dance Shake,light the candles,cut the new movie reviews, cake .Make ita a day,that's simply Great. Happy B'Day. 4. A prayer: 2 bless ur way A wish : 2 lighten ur moments. Birthday , Birthdays , Blessing 502 Words | 2 Pages.

LESSON PLAN Subject : English 4 Theme : Birthday Party Integrated skills : Reading Functions : to change over time, enable . the students to reordering jumbled sentences based on the pictures. Vocabulary : preparing, making, remember, praying, present, ribbon, clown, birthday party , candle Media : flashcards and pictures No Teaching Phase Teacher’s Instruction Student Activities Teaching Aids 1 Pre-Teaching ? Greet the students: “Hello good morning students. How are you? . Birthday , Birthdays , Education 600 Words | 5 Pages. My Best teacher In this article Gossman gives a brief introduction on reviews, where the research has stemmed from. TES has had an essays for business . article published each week providing data about what it means to be a best teacher. New Movie Release. The article explores who pasrtiicpants believe to be their best teachers highlighting their reasons for selection. Gossman indicates there research question is broad. Broad questions allow respondents to great application for business schools, give as much as information they would like which helps researchers gain a clearer. Data analysis , Focus group , Qualitative research 827 Words | 3 Pages.

The short story, “ Birthday Party ,” by Katharine Brush, depicts a couple in new movie release their late thirties. Analagous. The wife prepares a surpise for . him because it is his birthday and despite her efforts the husband is not pleased leaving the wife in tears, which causes the new movie release reviews, readers to analagous titles, be more sympathetic to the woman. This shows that problems cannot be covered up. Release Reviews. The author, Katharine Brush conveys this message to the readers through description, repetition, and how do a essay anonymous characters throughout the story. New Movie Release Reviews. Brush describes. Fiction , Husband , Marriage 471 Words | 2 Pages. Got big party plans? Before you go completely wild consider our top ten birthday party tips that will guarrantee . Heroes Essay. your Big Day is remembered for new movie release all the right reasons: Best friends If your child has a best friend make sure they can come on the date you are planning for the party before you go ahead with bookings and francis essay invitations. The day just won't be the same without their partner in crime by their side. Involve the birthday party child in new movie release reviews the planning If your child is old enough, sit down. Best Friends , Birthday , Birthday party 806 Words | 3 Pages.

Hi, everyone! My name is how long essay answers, Natasha. I have gone through many adventures in new movie reviews my life but the one that I am going to tell you about . is the greatest adventure of essays for business schools, all. This adventure summarizes all my other adventures. Release. This adventure started many years ago.

It started with two babies crying. They are twins and cassavant heroes one of them is me. The other baby is, well, my sister. I also have a brother but he came out new movie reviews many years before me so he didn’t come out together with us. I came out of my mother’s womb to. Education , Family , High school 1519 Words | 3 Pages. Happy Birthday to are short essay answers, you is a song sung on birthdays . Happy Birthday to You, also known more simply as Happy . Birthday , is a song that is traditionally sung to celebrate the anniversary of a person's birth.

According to the 1998 Guinness Book of World Records, Happy Birthday to You is the most recognized song in the English language, followed by For He's a Jolly Good Fellow. The song's base lyrics have been translated into at reviews, least 18 languages.[1], p. Essays For Business Schools. 17 The melody of Happy Birthday to You. Birthday , Birthdays , Copyright 2239 Words | 7 Pages. The Principal Revere Side School, Burnpur. Sub: - Prayer for admission of my ward in Std. One Respected Sir, . Respectfully this is new movie reviews, humbly to submit that I am working in Railway Protection Force Central Government Department under Ministry of Railway.

Recently I came on transfer Railway Protection Force Burnpur. Earlier my child was studying in answers a Shishu Niketan School Bhojudih, Dist. New Movie Release. Bokaro, Jharkhand. Essay. She is good and sincere. Classes of United States Senators , Departments of the United Kingdom Government , Government 492 Words | 4 Pages. Childhood Experience: My First Drumset. toys and spent most of my time alone.

Even at release reviews, the age of essays, 8 I was a deep thinker, always questioning why things happen the way they do. I was . constantly observing the world around me as if I was on the outside. I learned to appreciate silence at new movie release reviews, such a young age and didn’t speak much. I only spoke when I was spoken to, and essays even then I’d give a short response. I felt like I had so much to say but never found the right way to say it. I never found my voice until my eighth birthday when I had received a. Bass drum , Drum , Drum kit 1583 Words | 4 Pages. Parties and release reviews events take some planning and thought to figure out exactly what kind of event you want. Parties range from how do a essay, costume . parties , to new movie, house warming parties , surprise birthday parties , holiday parties , and even parties that are just for fun.

The three pillars to a successful party or event are preparation, guest list, and silk time entertainment. Release Reviews. Preparation is essays, where the process of release, planning a party or event begins. Heroes Essay. When trying to release, figure out how to throw a party you have to first come up with an idea. Birthday , Costume party , Entertainment 1537 Words | 4 Pages. “ Birthday Party ” Love can fade away or be lost by even the essay answers, strongest of couples in the view of new movie release reviews, society. The . “ Birthday Party ,” by Katharine Brush relates the are short essay, relationship of two “unmistakably married” couple, out for a small celebration, which goes wrong as an example of love that can not always be sustained by age. As couples get older it is harder to sustain love in front of society, and Brush shows the idea by incorporating symbolism, tone, and point of view to the story.

Brush uses the new movie release, tone. English-language films , Family , Family therapy 675 Words | 2 Pages. “Explain how the poem “not my best side” portrayal of its characters, leads to archetypes being gone against.” This poem is . inter-textual in a sense that it is based on the painting “St. How Do. George and the Dragon”. It takes a humorous role in portraying each of the characters found in the painting and goes against new movie release theirs common archetypes of a dragon, princess and knight.

This poem is great application essays for business schools, a parody on the archetypes that the characters of the painting should have, it goes against them completely in reviews a humorous.

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Reasons Why Autumn Is the Best Season. Fall is my favorite season. All the leaves from the trees and plants change into multi-colored works of art and fall away. Release Reviews! It creates bare, and vulnerable branches, revealing the true scenery underneath. It also represents a beautiful cycle of loss, regeneration and regrowth once the spring season comes around. The dead leaves and branches on the ground disintegrate and turn into part of the soil, which are used as seeds and fertilizer later once the cold welcomes the warmer weather. There are many reasons why I love fall and why I think it's the best season, but here are just a few.

In the southern part of the United States, all the great schools seasons are very apparent. The spring season is very green, the summer is release reviews very hot, the winter very cold and the fall is full of magnificent colors. The maple trees are especially vibrant with colors of red, golden yellow and combinations of both. When I was younger we called them tree stars from the movie Land Before Time and to this day they are my favorite trees when the season changes. This season is perfect for taking beautiful scenic photos and spending time outdoors. Nothing can relax and rejuvenate more than enjoying nature and the surrounding scenery. With cooler temperatures rolling in, saying goodbye to great for business, summer and release reviews, hello to fall is not a hard thing to do. It's a great time to break out the jackets, coats, boots, scarves and hats in preparation for the change in season. It's also the perfect time to start making hot cocoa, and are short essay, lighting a fire in the fireplace. This season creates a sense of comfort, warmth and reflection. It's a great time to new movie reviews, go camping, fishing, go on a road trip or anything else where you can spend quality time with family and eat good food.

I like the fall, I like the night owl's. And wailing sound. I like the gray. And bare, dead boughs. That coldly sway. Against my pane. I like the rain. And laugh at it.

My cozy fire a bit. I like the fall. The mist and all. author, Dixie Willson. Fall was my mother's favorite season, and every year when it rolls around it creates a flood of application, memories and reminds me of the beautiful person she was. She used to quote this poem from Dixie Willson, all the time, but even more so when the autumn was in full swing. It's one of the many things I learned from her when I was young, that poems have a way of capturing your soul and uncovering a deeper connection within yourself. Her demeanor changed when the new movie release reviews weather started getting cooler, she would spend more and more time outdoors.

She had a sense of essays with, peace and thankfulness that I hope to release reviews, convey to those around me. Autumn is one of the most packed holiday seasons. There's the back to school rush, Halloween, Thanksgiving and of course Christmas. But it's not just full of regular holidays, these are all very involved, family centered holidays. This is a season to be thankful, and to be surrounded by the people you love.

It's a perfect time to change up your decorations, add orange, red and yellow colors and pull out the spice scented candles. To think over the past year, what you've been through, the memories you've made together and to look forward to essays on biomes, a new and exciting year. Another reason I love the holidays is for the food. You generally won't eat nearly as good during this season compared to the rest of the year. Autumn is not only the best time of year, out of all four seasons but it's also the most scenic and beautiful if you love being outdoors. It's all about family, food and creating memories.

What season do you love the best and reviews, why? A List of great essays for business, Santa's Reindeer Names and Their Personalities. by Cynthia Sageleaf 55. 101+ Ideas to Create a Scary Haunted House. by Virginia Allain 68. Happy Independence Day Messages, Wishes, and Quotes. by Oyewole Folarin 3. 5 days ago. Better than the spring. Fall is also my favorite season because you can stay inside and snuggle.

You can get to bed at 7pm without hearing any noise. It gets dark earlier. The cold represents the warmer season. The leaves are also very beautiful and colorful. crystal mangual 12 months ago. Let me just tell you I LOVE how you wrote this.

And you are right fall is the new movie release reviews best season ever. Fall is definetly the silk over most wonderful time of the year!! :) Tigana Bryan 22 months ago. And don't forget the awesome fall makeup trends! Matte dark lipstick, winged liner, and matte foundation. Release Reviews! (I might wear that all year round lol) autumn is great schools my favourite season.i love it very much as i can.i write a book about autumn too.your essay also very beautiful as real sense of the word.good bye. Katharine L Sparrow 3 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. I live in the Northeast U.S., so summer is reviews my favorite time of year. Generally not too hot here all summer long. A Essay! In September I go all melancholy and new movie release reviews, it's hard to avoid feelings of depression.

However, I do agree that the scenery is how long answers exquisite and it's a good time to do outdoor things before the cold of winter sets in. I absolutely LOVED the poem your Mom taught you! Going to keep that one! Great hub! no way spring is a hell of a lot better. best season of the new movie release world.I love fall .I like the essays titles beauty of fall . Carrie Smith 5 years ago from Dallas, Texas. Thank you for new movie release the wonderful comments! I love this season :) Linda Bilyeu 5 years ago from Orlando, FL.

We don't have much of a Fall in on biomes FL so I appreciate the photos and this hub! Up/Awesome/Beautiful:) icciev 5 years ago from Kuwait. we don't much experience fall in the country where I live, nice hub voted up. David Stillwell 5 years ago from Sacramento, California. ah. applecsmith! I thought about you and this hub today. I got to drive through the Napa Valley today on new movie release, my way to Cobb Mountain. The grapes in the valley are all starting to turn their winter colors. but the silk road change over maples on the way to new movie release, Cobb were in how do you write a essay awesome display. Great hub!

Carrie Smith 5 years ago from Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the amazing comments. I'm glad that even though some of you might not live in this area of the release country, you still benefit from essay answers, it's beauty. Admiral - so glad you understood my reference to tree stars :) Admiral_Joraxx 5 years ago from Philippines. Excellent post!

Indeed autumn is new movie a great season, I wish I can experience this someday, as there's no autumn in our country.=) Hey Applecsmith, I'm also a great fan and follower of The Land Before Time and their favorite Tree stars. It was a great movie. 1 vote up and beautiful. Aceblogs 5 years ago from India. Autumn season has always proven out to be best for me for francis past 7 years . Hope this story continues for me in future as well. Very nicely explained hub. Images out there are very colorful and so full of life. Thanks. tailgatingguru 5 years ago from Atlanta, GA.

Beautiful! It is absolutely the best! Don A. Hoglund 5 years ago from Wisconsin Rapids. I've always like fall.When I was young I did outside stuff like paint the house. A.CreativeThinker 5 years ago. To one who loves creativity and art, this season seams to come alive with it's beauty. All seasons have something unique about them but the Spring and Fall can be very colorful. New Movie! Lovely photos. Voted Up! Take Care :)

jean2011 5 years ago from Canada. I too like the comfortable temperatures, and yes the lovely colours of how long answers, leaves. New Movie Release Reviews! Great for picture taking. I voted this hub beatiful. Thank you for silk road essay change over time sharing! TattooKitty 5 years ago from new movie release reviews, Hawaii. I agree- autumn is the best season! I've always been enchanted by silk essay, the beauty of the leaves changing color. Yet, living in Hawaii, I've never been able to experience it in new movie person. Cassavant! Definitely on my bucket list!

Beautiful hub ;) Om Paramapoonya 5 years ago. Lovely hub. I grew up in Thailand where most trees are evergreen. The first year I moved to the U.S., I was really amazed to new movie, see a bunch of how long essay answers, trees changing color. :) Aeron Wright 5 years ago.

Great photos! I love autumn too as there are so many great celebrations around and the weather is new movie just perfect, neither too cold nor too hot. RTalloni 6 years ago from the short journey. Yes! Bravo on essays on biomes, this fall season essay! :) To have one's mother quote such a poem--how lovely! Beautiful hub in every way--thank you for sharing it with us.

Voted up. I like all the seasons, each for their own beauties, but fall is special for all the reasons you write about. Carrie Smith 6 years ago from release reviews, Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the great comments. Great Application For Business Schools! I hope everyone gets the opportunity to see the fall season in East Texas sometime in their life. It's breathtaking! Kristin Trapp 6 years ago from Illinois. The colors in that first photograph are just magnificient. I hope our trees are that colorful this year in IL. Autumn is release hands-down my favorite season.

Peggy Woods 6 years ago from how do you write, Houston, Texas. The trees don't show as much color down here as they do up north. but it is still a beautiful time of reviews, year. The cooler temperatures are welcomed especially after a long hot summer. Silk Road Essay Time! You have given some great reasons why it is your favorite time of year and new movie release reviews, I'm sure that many people will agree. I love Autumn!

You have explained the topic very well. Marisa Hammond Olivares 6 years ago from Texas. Beautiful images! Fall is so colorful - wish we could experience it in South Texas :( Carrie Smith 6 years ago from Dallas, Texas. I couldn't agree more! Shopping season reaches it's peak during the fall and Black Friday deals are fantastic. I enjoy the smells, sounds and tastes of fall so much. Reading all these great comments has made my day, thanks a bunch.

MonetteforJack 6 years ago from analagous titles, Tuckerton, NJ. Fall is definitely my favorite season. It is the most comfortable weather for me. New Movie Release! The winds are just right and the air is scented with falling leaves and earthy pumpkins and squash. Like you, I love the maple tree turn vividly in hues of muted yellows and reds. Materially, I look forward to this season because this is the time of the year that I truly shop for next year's summer stuff and how do you write, other things on Black Fridays. Like you, the fall is the reviews start of frequent family gatherings.

Still, it is relaxing . The smell of on biomes, coffee brewing is more intoxicating at this time, so with hot cocoa, served with a bit of peppermint and mini-marshmallows. I also love Fall because of Thanksgiving. This is a breathtaking hub, I could go on release reviews, and on essays, why I love Fall. Thanks! cardelean 6 years ago from new movie release, Michigan. Fall is definitely the essays with analagous most beautiful season. I love the bounty that fall provides for new movie us in addition to francis cassavant heroes essay, the beautiful leaves. Thank you for release reviews sharing such wonderful thoughts about fall. Fall is with my favorite season too! I live in California, so the color change may not be as brilliant as in some other places, but I still love it.

I have always wanted to go visit back east where I have heard the fall colors are truly gorgeous. Dave Mathews 6 years ago from NORTH YORK,ONTARIO,CANADA. Autumn is my favorite season too. Not just for all the beauty in color, but also for the fact that autums is reviews harvest time for many of silk, our farm produce and new movie reviews, fruits. SJmorningsun25 6 years ago. I love autumn, too! Thanks for sharing your thoughts. Carrie Smith 6 years ago from Dallas, Texas. It's so nice to hear that everyone else loves the fall season like I do. Application Essays For Business Schools! It's a great time to take photos, enjoy the weather and reminisce. I almost love spring as much as fall, but not quite.

Thanks for the great comments. inaniLoquence 6 years ago from release reviews, Singapore. Autumn is absolutely beautiful. Unfortunately, we don't have it here in Southeast Asia. Instead, we enjoy/suffer rainy and dry seasons throughout the year. It's the tropical paradise but it would be fantastic to experience the Autumn months!

Victoria Lynn 6 years ago from Arkansas, USA. I do think fall is beautiful, but I vacillate between it and spring as my favorite season. Fall reminds me that winter is coming, and I loathe winter. Spring gives me hope that warmer, brighter days are coming. Still, the colors of fall are incredible. And the on biomes poem is adorable. Very nice hub! I voted many things on this one! I agree Fall is the best season not too hot and not too cold. My husband loves it also.

The thing that I really don't like is the sun goes down early and I can't enjoy more the temperature outside , cook outs and look at nature at its best. I still love Fall second to Spring, then Summer last is Winter. Your pictures are very beautiful thanks. I also wrote a hub on this same subject. It seems to be most everyones favorite. Love you pics and release reviews, article. I could just feel your excitement. Enjoy. Sciborgs 6 years ago from New York.

Nice pictures used! Fall is easily my favorite season, beautiful scenery, that perfect not to hot, not to cold weather, and, of course, Halloween is in the Fall, love Halloween! JS Matthew 6 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. Fall is my favorite season! I got my camera ready this year and waiting for the leaves to great essays for business schools, change, then I can publish a Photo Journey! I am lucky to new movie release, live in New England! Great Hub! Voting up and sharing!

Mamadrama 6 years ago from Upstate NY. Best Season EVER!! I love Autumn! flagostomos 6 years ago from how long are short answers, Washington, United States. I hear you. I absolute love autumn as well. New Movie! Something about are short essay, it reminds me of simpler times, back when I was a kid and Fall meant going back to school. My favorite is new movie release reviews Saturday afternoon, when the sun is starting to head under the great schools horizon and the afternoon sky feels hazy. It's like bright but not bright at the same time.

The air smells crisp and life just comes to a stand still. But to reviews, be honest with you I love all the seasons for you write a essay different reasons. David Stillwell 6 years ago from Sacramento, California. I love the Autumn months. I enjoy the way the reviews trees change and the weather can be warm and cool at essays analagous titles the same time. The sky is full of geese and clouds and the wind is new movie reviews a flutter with all that nature must do to francis heroes, prepare for winter. A really great hub Applecsmith! very well written and new movie release reviews, full of wisdom. andrewwilliams63 6 years ago. When the essays on biomes sun is out Autumn is beautiful, unfortunately that doesn't happen much in the UK!

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A Comparison of L1 and new movie release L2 Reading: Cultural Differences and Schema. The University of Arizona, USA. eading in the L1 shares numerous important basic elements with reading in a second or foreign language, the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both first and second languages. This paper will examine how reading in the L1 is different from and similar to how long essay answers, reading in the L2. More specifically, factors of cultural differences: content (background knowledge) schema, formal (textual) schema, linguistic (language) schema, will be examined. Based on such a discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader is new movie reviews provided. With Analagous? This paper will examine how reading in the L1 is new movie different from and similar to reading in the L2. More specifically, factors of cultural differences: content (background knowledge) schema, formal (textual) schema, linguistic (language) schema, will be examined. Based on such a discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader is provided.

While the research in this domain encompasses a great deal of on biomes, literature which cannot possibly be covered in its entirety here, it is hoped that this discussion will nonetheless provide readers with an overview in this area. New Movie Reviews? Research on the theory of schema has had a great impact on understanding reading. Researchers have identified several types of schemata. Content schema, which refers to a reader's background or world knowledge, provides readers with a foundation, a basis for comparison (Carrell Eisterhold, 1983; Carrell, Pharis, Liberto, 1989). Formal schema, often known as textual schema, refers to the organizational forms and rhetorical structures of written texts. It can include knowledge of different text types and how long are short answers genres, and also includes the reviews, understanding that different types of texts use text organization, language structures, vocabulary, grammar, level of formality/register differently. Francis Cassavant Heroes? Schooling and culture play the largest role in providing one with a knowledge base of formal schemata.

While formal schemata cover discourse level items, linguistic or language schemata include the decoding features needed to recognize words and reviews how they fit together in a sentence. First language readers, may through repeated examples, be able to cassavant heroes essay, generalize a pattern or guess the meaning of a word, which may not have initially been part of their linguistic schema. The building of linguistic schema in a second language can proceed in reviews, the much the same way. From the above discussion it is how long are short answers evident that schema plays an important role in new movie reviews, text comprehension, both in the L1 and L2 context. For example, whether reading in a first or second language, one can assume that both native and non-native readers will understand more of a text when they are familiar with content, formal, and linguistic schema.

An L2 reader, however, who does not possess such knowledge can experience schema interference, or lack of comprehension- ideas which are examined further in the following discussion pertaining to relevant research in francis cassavant essay, this area. Content Schema, Cultural Orientation, and Background Knowledge. Steffensen and Joag-Dev (1984) conducted a study using two descriptions of weddings both written in English. One was a descritption of an American wedding, while the other was of and new movie release reviews Indian (subcontinent) wedding. Both the Indian students, for whom English was an you write a essay, L2, and the American students, for whom English was the reviews, L1, read the answers, descriptions and were asked to recall the descriptions. New Movie Release Reviews? It was found that readers comprehended texts about their own cultures more accurately than the other. Great Application Schools? While the reviews, readers indicated that the words were easy to understand, the unfamiliar cultural protocol of an Indian wedding made the passage more difficult to remember.

Johnson's (1981) study investigated the effects of the cultural origin of prose on the reading comprehension of 46 Iranian intermediate advanced ESL students at the university level. Half of the subjects read the unadapted English texts of essays, two stories, one from new movie release Iranian folklore and with titles one from American folklore, while the other half read the same stories in adapted English. The subjects' reading comprehension was tested through the use of multiple-choice questions. The recall questions and the texts were also given to 19 American subjects for comparison purposes. Results revealed that the cultural origin of the story had a greater effect on comprehension than syntactic or semantic complexity of the text. In another study, Johnson (1982) compared ESL students' recall on a reading passage on release reviews, Halloween.

Seventy-two ESL students at the university level read a passage on the topic of Halloween. The passage contained both unfamiliar and familiar information based on the subjects' recent experience of the custom. Some subjects studied the meanings for unfamiliar words in the text. Results of recall protocols suggested that prior cultural experience prepared readers for comprehension of the familiar information about Halloween on the passage. However, exposure to the unfamiliar words did not seem to have a significant effect on their reading comprehension.

An interesting study was carried out by Kang (1992). Kang's study examined how second language readers filter information from second language texts through culture specific background knowledge. Korean graduate students with advanced English read stories and answered questions. A think-aloud protocol assessing their understanding and inferences indicated an effect of essays on biomes, culture specific schemata and inferences upon text comprehension. Although all the variables and factors surrounding the release, issues of how culture shapes background knowledge and essays on biomes influences reading are not fully understood, there is agreement that background knowledge is important, and that content schema plays an integral role in reading comprehension. New Movie Release? Overall, readers appeared to have a higher level of comprehension when the content was familiar to them. Given this, second language readers do not possess the same degree of content schema as first language readers, and hence, this can result in comprehension difficulties. Formal and great essays for business Linguistic Schema and Text Comprehension. For the reviews, most part, these studies suggested that different types of text structure affected comprehension and recall (Bean, Potter, Clark, 1980; Carrell, 1984).

Some studies also showed that there may have differences among language groups as to which text structures facilitated recall better (Carrell, 1984). For example, Carrell's (1984) study showed that Arabs remembered best from expository texts with comparison structures, next best from problem-solution structures and collections of descriptions, and least well from causation structures. Are Short? Asians, however, recalled best from new movie texts with either problem-solution or causation structures, and least well from are short essay answers either comparison structures or collections of descriptions. These results; however, must be taken as suggestive as further studies examining the interaction of language background with text structure are needed. Regardless of new movie reviews, these findings, as previously stated, it is important to recognize that organizational structures in text will differ across cultures. Stone's (1985) study examined whether language patterns found in English, which differed from road time those in Spanish, would have a significant effect on new movie release reviews, ESL learners' comprehension while reading English text. Average fifth grade readers were randomly assigned to either an initial Spanish-speaking group or an initial English speaking group. Nine stories were developed for great application essays for business, the study, three for each of three different language patterns categories: similar, moderately similar, and dissimilar.

Measures included a retelling and comprehension questions. Results showed that on the retelling measures, the lowest scores were found on stories that were most dissimilar from the students' initial language, and oral reading errors increased as language pattern similarity decreased. The results support the contention that texts violating readers' expectations about language patterns can have disruptive effects. Over the last few years, the field of contrastive rhetoric has emerged initiated by the work of Kaplan (1966). Its areas of focus are the role of the first language conventions of discourse and rhetorical structure on L2 usage, as well as cognitive and cultural dimensions of new movie, transfer, particularly in relation to writing. For the most part, contrastive rhetoric identifies problems in composition encountered by L2 writers and by referring to rhetorical strategies of the first language, attempts to explain them.

It is francis cassavant heroes clear that such differences in text structure can lead to difficulties in reading. New Movie Release? Mauranen (1992) examined cohesion in both Finnish and English economic texts and found that Finnish writers employed relatively little metalanguage for organizing text and orienting the reader. In contrast, native English speakers used plenty of devices for orienting the cassavant heroes, reader in terms of what is to follow in the text and how the reader should understand the different sections of the new movie release reviews, text. This pattern was found in their writing as well. Finnish writers used less demonstrative references than native English writers. Lindeberg (1988), in her examination of text linguistic features, found differences between Finnish and English writers in terms of topic development and the functions of verbs.

Numerous differences have also been found in road essay over, terms of writing styles between American-English and other languages. American students for example will often comment on the more theoretical and abstract essays of French writers whose essays lack the details and reviews rhetorical patterns found in the American essay tradition. Chinese writing is francis often described as being verbose, ornamental, and lacking in coherence from a Western point of release, view, while Japanese writing has been noted for differences in text organization. It appears that they prefer a specific-to-general pattern placing the how do, general statement at the end of release reviews, paragraphs (Connor, 1996). Lastly, it is important to point out that The differences between the writing systems and rhetorical structures of the native language and the target language may be another factor that influence reading. Orthographic systems vary widely and cassavant heroes essay while some languages may contain many numbers of symbols, other languages contain a limited number.

For example, Chinese calligraphy is a writing system with numerous symbols and new movie release one that has strong aesthetic elements thereby differing from Engish. Arabic also has a unique writing system in that it is written and read from right to essays with analagous titles, left. Release Reviews? These kinds of differences in writing systems can pose difficulties for second language readers. Undoubtedly, students reading in a second language will encounter such difficulties not faced by first language readers. In summary, teachers must therefore be explicit about the structures of the materials the students are reading in the L2 class through which students can become aware of culturally shaped expectations about essays on biomes text and language. Connor (1996) provides an extensive survey on this issue and considers the types of differences between the native and target language that can interfere with text comprehensibility. Second language refers to the chronology of language learning; a second language being any language acquired after the native (Stern, 1983, p. 12). New Movie Reviews? This definition implies a firmly developed native language.

In addition, the cassavant essay, term second language implies that the new movie reviews, language is probably not spoken in essays on biomes, the home. Furthermore, the release reviews, second language may contain a linguistic base that is syntactically, phonetically, semantically, and rhetorically distinct from the silk essay over, target language. As previously discussed, schema plays an important role in reading comprehension. An L2 reader who is release not familiar with culturally based knowledge or content schema, or a reader who does not possess the same linguistic base as the L1 reader will encounter difficulties. Such difficulties may be greater when there is a greater difference between the L1 and the L2.

If for example, syntactic structure in essays analagous, a second language student's native language is very different from that of the target language, a greater degree of cognitive restructuring is required (Segalowitz, 1986). Grabe (1991) also notes that students begin reading in an L2 with a different knowledge base than they had when starting to read in their L1. For example, L1 readers already have a sufficient vocabulary base and new movie know thousands of words before they actually start to read. They also have some grammatical knowledge of their own language. L2 readers on the other hand, do not share these advantages. Furthermore, while the second language reader may have linguistic skills, they often do not have finely honed sociocultural skills, which often means that a second language reader is not equipped with the knowledge to perceive texts in francis, a culturally authentic, culturally specific way, an idea related to release, lack of content schema. The end result, comprehension, is based on linguistic data. Given the above discussion, a profile of a biliterate reader can be offered. Biliteracy means that one can read in two more languages. Heroes? The ability to read and read successfully implies text comprehension and the knowledge of which reading strategies and skills to use, and under what conditions in the languages in question.

A biliterate reader in reviews, Spanish and answers English, for example, would mean that the reader is able to read successfully in both languages and would engage in reviews, some of the following reading behaviors to enhance reading comprehension and to read effectively. Such a reader would overview text before reading, employ context clues such as titles, subheading, and diagrams, look for important information while reading and titles pay greater attention to it than other information, attempt to relate important points in text to one another in order to release reviews, understand the text as a whole, activate and use prior knowledge to interpret text, (which includes content, formal, and linguistic schema), reconsider and revise hypotheses about the meaning of text based on text content, attempt to a essay, infer information from the text, attempt to release reviews, determine the meaning of words not understood or recognized, monitor text comprehension, identify or infer main ideas, use strategies to remember text (paraphrasing, repetition, making notes, summarizing, self-questioning, etc), understand relationships between parts of text, recognize text structure, change reading strategies when comprehension is on biomes perceived not be proceeding smoothly; evaluate the qualities of text, reflect on and process additionally after a part has been read, and anticipate or plan for new movie release, the use of knowledge gained from the reading. While this list is not prioritized or complete, it does provide one with a description of the characteristics of successful biliterate readers. Such a reader would employ these strategies and reading behaviors when reading in all languages. Furthermore, the essays with, biliterate reader, regardless of text type, language, or orthography would develop strategies and new movie release reviews schemas for dealing with different languages and texts.

The biliterate reader therefore is a flexible reader and one who possesses the essays on biomes, knowledge, skills and strategies to accommodate to new movie, each language situation, and hence the process of reading in either language will not be seen as different by the reader. In summary, this paper has attempted to essays, discuss some of the differences and similarities between reading in a first language and reading in release, a second language. Factors of cultural differences were considered with special attention directed to you write a essay, the role of schema and how this relates to text comprehension in an L1 and L2. There are certainly a number of other factors which would contribute to release, the difference in L1 and L2 reading, but it hoped that this discussion shed some light on how cultural factors, namely differences in types of schema can contribute to how long, this difference. While the two processes are also similar in some ways, it must be noted that students' perception of their reading difficulties are also similar in many ways across languages.

Readers, especially L2 readers, can better understand some of those similarities. Teachers must therefore question students about their reading and reading behaviors, as students themselves can offer tremendous insights into release reviews, both their L1 and francis heroes L2 reading experiences.

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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for reviews, cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in great application essays schools, 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and release immortality. The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of francis cassavant heroes cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the new movie fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A. Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in on biomes, 1936 by release reviews, Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. With Analagous. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of release reviews Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for how long essay, cooperative members and leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and students of cooperatives throughout the United.

Although we focus on cooperative businesses in the United States, and draw most of our references from the agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is new movie, pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to application essays for business seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and countries, and new movie reviews provide more detailed information on with analagous consumer, service and new movie release reviews worker-owned cooperatives and credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in are short essay, the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for all of the editing and new movie release reviews most of the revised text. On Biomes. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from new movie reviews The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of great persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise. Cooperative leaders around the new movie reviews world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on how do a essay cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the new movie release antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated.

In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the cassavant essay 17th and voluntarily and have the new movie release freedom to quit the cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for how long answers, launching the new movie release f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.

The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of essays with titles principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and release instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. The “user-owner” principle implies that the people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the essays analagous titles coop. Release Reviews. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to how do you write (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and new movie release living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative?

Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in how do a essay, a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. New Movie Reviews. Advisory directors are becoming more common in large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Essays. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions. Voting rights are generally tied to membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to new movie release the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Essays Analagous. Cooperative law in a number of new movie reviews states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Instead of for business one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of new movie votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members.

For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of ten votes. Democratic control is cassavant heroes, maintained by new movie reviews, tying voting rights to patronage. Francis Heroes Essay. Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of new movie release reviews proportionality, another key foundation for essays with, cooperatives. Members should share the benefits, costs, and risks of new movie release doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint. To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of silk members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds).

Cooperatives can also return a portion of their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on release annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to silk road essay change time those who may have the most invested; the importance of new movie capital is subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the essays 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of capital for new movie release reviews, start-up and how do you write growth.

An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of new movie reviews economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of how long are short answers their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and new movie knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and how long answers buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER. Employees organize bargaining associations and labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and release owners.

In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is how do you write a essay, owned and controlled by its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and new movie fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in with analagous titles, the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in release reviews, the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. 1). An introduction to cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at essay answers, affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and new movie release services they can buy with their income.

They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in terms of quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and other farm-related services. They captured 28 percent of the market share. Figure 1. Essays On Biomes. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives.

8 The involvement of so many people in cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of cooperatives and the extent of new movie release their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to how do a essay investors. New Movie. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. Additional cooperative structural characteristics and francis heroes guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the new movie release reviews six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. Silk Road Essay Change Time. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs. Members, the board of directors, and release management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share.

Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and answers good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. New Movie Release. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is with analagous, one of the new movie release reviews seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA. The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and essays analagous titles communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. New Movie Reviews. Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of cooperation as well as with federal and state laws.

Chapter 7 lays out the essays for business main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and equity redemption plans. As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients. A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in release, chapter 9. Essays. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in new movie release, England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in England and other parts of Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and francis cassavant heroes goods for new movie release reviews, their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by a rapid succession of with remarkable inventions that accelerated the new movie release industrialization of business. Examples of inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of essays charcoal, the otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine.

The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production. New Movie. Workers were required to move into cities to on biomes find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into new movie, a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in essays, production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns. Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in release, times and places of economic stress and great application essays for business social upheaval.

9 stock. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of new movie release small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. Essay. A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the status quo and new movie demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the how do you write widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in release reviews, the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to heroes essay the government for new movie release reviews, improved working and living conditions.

THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of how do cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and reviews places of how long are short essay answers economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the new movie reviews Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and essays for business organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of release self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in great essays for business schools, London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and reviews wellknown example was organized in England in 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death. 12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793.

A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. You Write A Essay. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760. Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in new movie, a number of with cities shortly after the turn of the release reviews 19th century to with titles cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers.

Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times. Guilds had binding rules for production and business practices. Although guilds were created partially in release reviews, an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to escape the realities of essays with titles life, and release when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of on biomes a coherent argument for the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and new movie William King in 858):“The Father England and you write a essay Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. New Movie. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.

They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for are short, unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in release reviews, the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and one in silk road essay change over, Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at reviews, all interested, therefore, in helping the early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to road over respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for a new retail cooperative.

Owen’s attack upon release, individualism, the essays family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of cooperatives from various religious groups. Even so, Owen is often called the new movie “father of essays cooperation. New Movie Release. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for how long, the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of release reviews labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives.

Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals. King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the welfare of the application working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and a library. Between 1828 and 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and new movie release reviews instruction on cooperation in essays on biomes, theory as well as in practice. The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the release original capital supplied by on biomes, members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by release reviews, wealthy investors.

King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and silk change over were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and new movie operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to increase the scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for great essays schools, consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and release Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on silk road change over a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the area should be three square miles. Release Reviews. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the titles creation of such communities. Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. New Movie Reviews. 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and essays (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830.

Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in Birmingham, and new movie release the third in on biomes, 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and release reviews rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in how do you write a essay, Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in new movie reviews, New York City in 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and poor management and for business schools internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores. By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at a standstill and King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by new movie release, King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Francis Cassavant. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings.

Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of 28 continued to work actively for social reform and eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. New Movie Reviews. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to essays sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to manufacture goods their members needed; and new movie release (4) to provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to francis cassavant essay open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of release reviews various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.

The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of this law, the Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the francis cassavant heroes essay registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in trade. Release Reviews. Therefore, the consumer cooperatives did not have the proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. 1. Essays. Voting is by members on new movie a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. 2. Membership is how do you write a essay, open. 3. Equity is provided by members. 4. Equity ownership share of individual members is limited. Release Reviews. 5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis.

6. How Long Essay Answers. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. New Movie Reviews. Exchange of goods and services at market prices. 8. Duty to educate. 9. How Long Essay. Cash trading only. 10. Release Reviews. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and religious neutrality. 12.

Equality in road essay over, membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from David Barton,“Principles,” in new movie, David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the how long answers world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of new movie release reviews cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles). How Long Essay Answers. The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is still in reviews, operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to follow.

It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in with titles, Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials. It allowed cooperatives to pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of release ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for co-op debts less than or equal to the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives.

As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of how long essay England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in new movie reviews, 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in how do you write, bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world. THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of reviews cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the essays titles 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of new movie release reviews deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region.

The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848. During this same year, F. W. Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to titles transfer money from the rich to new movie reviews the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of francis essay Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society. Early agricultural marketing and new movie release farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. Francis Cassavant. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system.

The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. The first cooperative creameries were very successful. News of new movie release reviews their success and popularity spread to how long are short essay answers other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country. New Movie Release Reviews. These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. Francis Cassavant Essay. The early and striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in new movie release, rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the first in silk road change time, Eilenburg in 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by Kold in release, 1851, however, was more successful and widely to fit the credit needs of how long essay answers artisans and other smallscale industries and new movie release developed other credit organi- replicated. The mission of the schools was to essays analagous titles enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations.

Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and new movie release used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to cassavant be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America.

Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. New Movie Release. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for a number of years. cially by essays, the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and without examinations. New Movie. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the application essays schools world in the 19th century (table 2. 1). Another notable cooperative advocate is new movie reviews, Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for heroes essay, advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and reviews beyond. 21 He was instrumental in creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the great application for business schools Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in 1894, is new movie reviews, located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in are short essay, nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture.

Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and are extremely successful. However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3). Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per new movie release reviews, capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the case of India and great for business schools other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of numerous, local cooperatives.

More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to release reviews such diverse countries as India, Korea and silk change over time Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and new movie North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. They also established bonds of trust among those who came to live and study at the schools.

The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. How Do You Write. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an new movie release, important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. Essay Answers. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country. First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. New Movie. 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20.

0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. Essays. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13. 3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. New Movie Release. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. Cassavant Essay. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. New Movie Release. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11.

1 Sweden 1850 1895 53. 7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. Great Application Essays For Business Schools. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement.

London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39). 12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17.

49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. New Movie Release. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and membership by heroes essay, international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. 51 3,131 0. Reviews. 4 42 9. Silk Road Essay Change Over. 04 27,076 156. 19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. Release. coop. org/statistics. html (April 26, 2002). Essays On Biomes. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. ). 2. Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and cooperative advocates.

5. New Movie Reviews. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at both state and cassavant heroes federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the birth of the country (America achieved independence in 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to create the first successful fire insurance company in the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire. Release Reviews. 24 Franklin had already formed the great application schools Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the release reviews success and with analagous titles importance of mutual societies when he was living in England. Release Reviews. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on road essay change time a similar London association created in 1696.

25 Although European models and European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in release, agriculture that co-ops began to take root in new and road essay change distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. New Movie Release. As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and you write a essay adapted by settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in release reviews, 1620 signed the Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in how long essay answers, the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in the United States are both an new movie release, artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to application for business schools harsh living conditions in rural areas. Reviews. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture. The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in heroes, 1810: a dairy cooperative in Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community.

Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in new movie release, the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to how do a essay get such a paper?

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