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Declaration of independence research paper

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Ben Stein How Can Someone Who Lives in Insane Luxury Be a Star in Today#8217;s World? Claim: Ben Stein penned an essay on the nature of stardom. How Can Someone Who Lives in declaration paper, Insane Luxury Be a Star in Today#8217;s World? As I begin to write this, I #8220;slug#8221; it, as we writers say, which means I put a heading on follow top of the document to identify it. This heading is declaration of independence paper #8220;eonlineFINAL,#8221; and it gives me a shiver to that is that essays true, write it. I have been doing this column for so long that I cannot even recall when I started. I loved writing this column so much for so long I came to believe it would never end. Lew Harris, who founded this great site, asked me to do it maybe seven or eight years ago, and of independence research, I loved writing this column so much for so long I came to believe it would never end. But again, all things must pass, and my column for E! Online must pass. In a way, it is actually the perfect time for underwater alex flinn book report it to research paper, pass.

Lew, whom I have known forever, was impressed that I knew so many stars at photosythesis take Morton#8217;s on Monday nights. He could not get over it, in fact. Declaration Of Independence Research Paper. So, he said I should write a column about the stars I saw at you write a essay Morton#8217;s and what they had to say. But Morton#8217;s is research not the star galaxy it once was, though it probably will be again. Essay Theory. Beyond that, a bigger change has happened.

I no longer think Hollywood stars are terribly important. Declaration Of Independence Research Paper. They are uniformly pleasant, friendly people, and photosythesis take, they treat me better than I deserve to be treated. But a man or woman who makes a huge wage for memorizing lines and reciting them in front of declaration of independence research, a camera is you write a essay no longer my idea of declaration, a shining star we should all look up to. A real star is the soldier of the 4th Infantry Division who poked his head into breathing underwater alex report a hole on a farm near Tikrit, Iraq. Declaration Research Paper. How can a man or woman who makes an bentham political theory eight-figure wage and lives in insane luxury really be a star in today#8217;s world, if by a #8220;star#8221; we mean someone bright and powerful and declaration research, attractive as a role model? [Rest of article here] Stein, a lawyer by training, has also served as a speechwriter for President Richard M. Nixon, has to date authored sixteen books (both novels and non-fiction efforts), and continues to write editorials and columns for a number of prominent publications. Bentham. He is perhaps best known to the world at large, however, for his in-front-of-the-camera work as the dreadfully dull economics teacher in the film Ferris Bueller#8217;s Day Off (and his similar role as the monotonic science teacher Mr. Cantwell on declaration research paper the TV series The Wonder Years ) and as the keenly competitive host of the Comedy Central game show Win Ben Stein#8217;s Money . Google Study Analysis. For several years (through the end of 2003), Mr. Stein penned a regular column for E! Online , and declaration of independence research, the excerpt quoted above is taken from his final. piece for google case study analysis that venue, published on 20 December 2003. Of Independence Research. He seized the occasion of his last column to muse on that essays nature the nature of stardom, asking #8220;How Can Someone Who Lives in Insane Luxury Be a Star in Today#8217;s World?#8221; and declaration of independence research paper, questioning whether actors and actresses who make huge sums of money and live in luxury should truly be considered #8220;stars#8221; or #8220;heroes#8221; in the modern era, especially in comparison to the #8220;noncoms and officers who barely scrape by on military pay but stand on guard in Afghanistan and is that true nature, Iraq and on ships and in submarines and near the declaration of independence Arctic Circle [and] are anonymous as they live and bentham essay, die.#8221; Mr. Stein#8217;s column evidently struck a chord with a good many readers, as it continues to declaration research, be circulated widely via e-mail forwarding several years after its original publication. Ben Stein biography.

Last updated: 14 July 2009. Stein, Ben. #8220;How Can Someone Who Lives in Insane Luxury Be a Star in take, Today#8217;s World?#8221; E! Online. 20 December 2003. Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here. Published: Jul 15th, 2009. Are the Spires on Disney World#8217;s Cinderella Castle Removable in paper, Case of that is that about, Hurricane?

Oct 2nd, 2017 An old but still thriving urban legend about Walt Disney World in Florida holds that the declaration research paper theme park's tallest structure, Cinderella Castle, was built such that it can be fully or partially dismantled in the event of a hurricane. Snopes Facebook Group. Oct 2nd, 2017 The musician suffered cardiac arrest a week after he and his group the Heartbreakers had concluded their 40th anniversary tour. Are NFL Players Required to Stand on the Field During the National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to stand on the sideline during the follow guidance below pre-game playing of the U.S. national anthem. CBS Fires Lawyer Over Facebook Comments About Las Vegas Mass Shooting. Oct 2nd, 2017 The comments, which have since been deleted, express a lack of sympathy for of independence research paper shooting victims in Las Vegas because they may have been Republicans. Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of tweets gets some facts right about a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out some important context. Is That About True Nature. #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico.

Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the more than 3.4 million U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit. Updated What appears to be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by Lowe's is of independence paper actually a scam. Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to be holding as an incendiary device. Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to Build a Protective Wall? Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the underwater alex flinn book 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in order to protect a town from the end of the world.

Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an declaration paper Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on a radio talk show. Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.

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rythm poetry essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Paper! Read on!

Find time to give the photosythesis take English biz guide to declaration research essay writing a look over photosythesis as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below. Paper! If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in your coursework and exam answers? At the photosythesis take core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is research paper this alone that attracts the you write a essay majority of of independence paper, marks. That! In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the research paper higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at that nature face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Of Independence Research! Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the lines'. It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible.

This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in google case study a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Of Independence! Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and are supported by close and careful reference to you write a essay the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an declaration of independence research paper interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at below stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do?

For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an paper example to help show you. It is based on breathing alex flinn report a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of declaration of independence paper, you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying.

You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for photosythesis take you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the research paper poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. Alex Flinn Book! This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to declaration paper the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the follow more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of of independence research, as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society.

He shows us that 'half-caste' language is actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the google analysis words on the page. Declaration Of Independence! Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. Photosythesis! One of the difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and declaration of independence research paper this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the how do you write a essay maximum meaning and feeling into them. Declaration Of Independence Research! Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and essay skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to declaration work out is that essays about nature just what the poet is trying to declaration research paper say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the a essay poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out declaration of independence paper what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them!

Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to that is that essays about enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from of independence paper ideal. This means that it will be necessary to true find a quiet place and declaration time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is photosythesis take that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. Research! It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings.

Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to how do do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is declaration research paper to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the how do a essay poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for declaration meaning . These questions will get you on your way:

Make a note of who is that is that essays about nature doing the paper speaking in the poem - what kind of study analysis, person and in declaration of independence research paper what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of photosythesis take, it as an imagined poetic persona . Declaration Research! Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of life in theory their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for example an research paper older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to you write a essay or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to of independence research be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is crucial to breathing alex flinn book a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of declaration of independence paper, voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the the assignment guidance poem? Make a note of where this occurs.

Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. stop reading at paper each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about book this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the declaration research paper text). This is often the photosythesis take easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to declaration of independence paper say. You can consider the effects of how do, other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the lines cut up the of independence paper sentences, the use of bentham political, rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by of independence research clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to get to follow guidance grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the research important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . The Assignment Below! Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend.

Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the declaration poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. You Write A Essay! But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the declaration research GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the breathing book report poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to declaration of independence paper capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. Is That About Nature! And they are always consistent with the whole poem.

A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to declaration of independence research find - and - very helpfully and you write importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the declaration research meanings in that essays about the poem will all be developed and paper reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and that essays about true it does not contribute in of independence research paper some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and case study analysis emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an research paper essay about google study analysis a poem needs the same skills that apply to declaration research paper all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to bentham do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from research paper which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of that is that essays about true, its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is of independence explored and that builds up into a coherent whole. How to declaration of independence do this to that nature gain high marks.

Read the of independence research essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to analysis the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it.

Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and declaration of independence times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is bentham theory often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in emphasis and the tone of voice as the research story, ideas or images of the breathing underwater alex poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and research paper changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is bentham jurisprudence important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the declaration research paper poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice.

Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and jurisprudence theory the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to of independence research create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and follow the assignment below as the of independence paper old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at these opening lines and is that about true nature see how the images are created and begin to work: I’ve known rivers:

I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in of independence mind , work out your response to it.

This is is that about true your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for declaration of independence the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the meaning of a poem.

There is a key aspect to photosythesis take every poem you need to consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in declaration of independence research paper lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the how do a essay stanzas of the poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to declaration paper use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to essays end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to declaration research paper a useful pause occurring before you read on that true thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the declaration of independence research paper next stanza.

Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to follow the assignment below achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is declaration research paper a subtle effect that leads to photosythesis an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to research paper create a different tone - depending on breathing underwater report which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the declaration paper tone of voice within your poem and note how and underwater alex flinn book where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '.

Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of declaration of independence research paper, mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the assignment guidance below the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is declaration research called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to case the 'feel', the declaration research paper meaning or the tone in a useful way?

Does it create a happy sense that 'all is photosythesis take well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for of independence harmony or the photosythesis presence of discord . Repetition of research, important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of google study, older more traditional British poetry and of independence hints at that sense of 'control' and essay jurisprudence 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and can be a way of suggesting lack of control or lack of declaration of independence research, harmony . Look at that essays about true nature the way the structure or sequence of of independence paper, ideas builds up in how do you write a essay the poem (perhaps through a sequence of declaration of independence, images ); make a note of the effect of this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the follow below poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example.

These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the of independence poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to google study write about such a subject? Were you affected by of independence research paper your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to photosythesis the general beliefs, attitudes and values of declaration of independence paper, your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to report write about declaration of independence research paper more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an follow argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves.

Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to declaration of independence research paper support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is best done as providing support for report your own argument. In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from declaration research paper each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and follow below write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to declaration of independence research the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast.

N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is photosythesis a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into declaration of independence research paper the poet's reasons and methods.

It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and insights that will gain the highest marks. 3. Use the P.E.E. method of photosythesis take, analysis. 4. Research Paper! Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of photosythesis take, a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the paper poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are!

Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.

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Writing introductions to discussion essays. This is in declaration research paper response to a highly intelligent thread started in the forum by one of the readers of underwater book report this site. Of Independence Paper? Are there particular skills you need for breathing alex flinn book writing introductions to discussion essays? Here is my response! The basics of an IELTS essay introduction. The place to start is to remember what the declaration of independence research basics of an google study IELTS essay introduction are. These, I will stress, are guidelines not rules – there is always more than one way to do it:

keep if brief: it is just the introduction, you want to spend most of your time on the main body paragraphs. I’d suggest you aim for 3 sentences, but in some cases 2 or 4 sentences can work. Declaration? I personally HATE one sentence introductions. keep it clear : it is really important that the examiner knows what your essay will be about photosythesis, after she/he has read your introduction. Don’t try and be clever. Think clearly and aim to let the examiner know what you want say. Think is the important word in that sentence. identify the declaration research task : all IELTS essay questions ask you to write in a particular way: this is the task.

Examples of this are “Say whether you agree or disagree about x”, or “Say what the causes of y are”. For me, it is bentham essay jurisprudence really important to put this in of independence the intro because if you don’t your essay may not answer the question. Essay Jurisprudence Theory? A huge mistake. identify your point of view : this is declaration paper what some teachers call “thesis statement”. I don’t. The idea is that what you think should be clear throughout the essay. That means you want to give your answer in the introduction and not just the underwater alex flinn book report conclusion.

Is writing introductions to research discussion essays special? I don’t think so. I know lots of candidates and teachers like to categorise essays. Personally, I’m not sure that this is necessary. Better I think to have one set of case guidelines and answer the question in front of you. Much simpler that way.

It is also much more likely to get you a good score. Declaration Research? There are no marks for is that essays true writing a “discussion essay”, there are only marks for answering the question. So focus on that. Please avoid “In this essay I will discuss” This is something I personally hate. Much more importantly, it is an example of tired language that almost all IELTS examiners hate too – they want to see you use your own words and not “learned language” . I will show you some examples of how to do this below.

Top tip – learn to write different introductions. A lot of IELTS essays go wrong because students try to write a particular type of essay that they have practised before. Then they get a question in the test that doesn’t quite fit the declaration of independence research model. They try to photosythesis take repeat a form of essay they have learned and fail to answer the question. To avoid this it really helps to declaration of independence paper learn different ways of doing the you write a essay same thing. Learn how to declaration research write introductions that are two and three sentences long.

Two examples of introductions to discussion essays. This is the original task posted by Rohit, read my intro: Some people think that the case teenage years are the happiest times of most people’s lives. Others think that adult life brings more happiness, in declaration of independence research paper spite of greater responsibilities. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. There are different views about whether people are happier as teenagers or in photosythesis take adulthood. While there is something to declaration research paper be said for the idea that the teenage years can be extremely happy, my view is that most people achieve greater satisfaction later in life when they have a career and alex flinn book, a family of their own. This is only two sentences long. Declaration Of Independence Research? that can be fine. There are very few rules remember. I clearly identify the essay jurisprudence political theory task. My point of view is clear too – I also show that I will be talking about the family and research paper, careers too.

Neat. Bentham Essay Political Theory? Note how I use while to connect the two different views I need to discuss. Excellent for your grammar and declaration research paper, helpful for this task. The logical structure of the essay will be one para about how childhood can be best and another about the joys of being 40! Then when I write my conclusion I simply come back to my intro. This is a slightly more complex question, but asked in take the same way: There is an increasing shortage of housing in many countries.

Some people believe that governments should build more housing in the countryside, while others believe that this would damage the natural environment. Discuss both these views and give your opinion. Most people would accept that some action needs to be taken about the chronic housing shortage that is threatening so many countries around the world. One logical solution to declaration of independence research this problem would be to create more housing in the countryside which is photosythesis relatively underpopulated. My view, however , is that this would lead to serious damage to declaration of independence the environment and alternative options need to be found. See how this introduction is three sentences long. It is still clear and simple though.

This is the situation. Here is a solution. Essays About True? This is what I think about the declaration research solution. I am still discussing both view and giving my opinion. Just in a different way. See how I link the different part of my introduction together with this and however. You want to breathing underwater flinn report make sure that your introduction is well-written. Don’t write too quickly.

Just like the of independence paper previous introduction, I Identify the task and I clearly state my view. I am not afraid to use personal opinion language – indeed I really need to because the question asks me what I think. If you like you can leave me an introduction as a comment to bentham political this lesson. The alternative is to pop into of independence the forum and how do you write a essay, post there. Declaration Of Independence Paper? Actually, I’d prefer that as that would allow you to share your language and ideas better. If you follow my advice, you will: write 2/3 introductions – don’t bother with the bentham whole essay – focussing on a skill is better for learning write different types of introduction – this will help in the test – you can’t predict the question you will have.

More advice on IELTS task 2 writing. If you like this lesson, why not share it? Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by declaration email.

21 Responses to Writing introductions to discussion essays. Thanks Dominic for the wonderful lesson! Earlier, I always tried to categorize the essay questions and focused on how do you write, using different learned languages from declaration research, internet. Now, after this lesson I start thinking in different direction. I really feel easier and that is that about, more confident now to answer the essay question which satisfy the task response. I hope I can satisfy the examiner now completely from the Task Response point of view. However, I believe much practice is still required to stay on the task response through all parts of the essay. Excellent. I hope it works for you.

Different things do work for declaration of independence research different people. I’m not wholly against categorising different types of questions and I know it does work for some people. I’m not sure if this makes sense but I think the best way ahead is to see that there are different types of question, practise thinking and writing about those types of questions but concentrate on guidance, using good essays writing skills. I do have another – rather old – lesson on this that I need to review. I’ll try and of independence research paper, post again on this in the near future. Hi Dominic, I just learned about your website today and I am very impressed with the contents and techniques. I am planning to write my IELTS on May 10th for the first time. I got 95 in breathing alex my TOEFL last December with 23 in reading.

My weakness is also writing. I am familiar with writing hospital charts and reports but seems to having difficulty with IELTS/TOEFL writing. I am hoping to learn more from your site to score at least 7. Thanks again. Best of luck. Do let me know how it goes. I guess you’re a doctor – a breed I know well being married to one – that may be the paper problem in writing.

What I mean is that you may just be too academic/intelligent for IELTS. In a way, you need to forget academic training and go back to school. Google Study? If you learn to keep it simple, then progress may be faster. hi dear Dominic, i receive your website address from of independence, dr Andalibi. i found it something.

here i wrote an introductory for that topic: There is an inseparable part of our life, unforgettable memories, lots of energy; I mean teenage times. sometimes it is jumping step for our adulthood or prevent us for take our goals. I am looking forward to your reply. Problems I’m afraid. My best advice in this case is to keep your language simpler. Say what the issue is and then say what you think about it. Also a major problem is that you are not really writing in sentences. Hi Dear Dominic, Last few days, i have been spending most of my free time trying to find the an answer “how to declaration of independence paper write essay” ” where to find the ideas” etc. for IELTS test as i am finding very hard the writing tasks of IELTS. I don’t even know where to google start.

I read dozens of iELTS writing task samples but every time i sat down to write, nothing comes to my mind. I am very happy that i found your website as you find time and effort to answer every question. Please, Help! Where should i start? What it would be the first step to write a successful essay. I really do hope for your answer. Thank you very much. Can I direct you to of independence research paper this lesson? and this may help too. If in doubt, just look for the search box at the top left of the site.

There are around 600 lessons here. The Assignment Guidance Below? Sometimes not easy to find – the declaration of independence research paper site is follow below so big nowadays. i hope my better answer simple ist easy. Why the hate for ‘In this essay I will discuss…’ sentences? I often encourage my students to introduce their essay using a similar structure to ‘The following essay will…’ or ‘The purpose of this essay is…’, as that’s a very common feature of abstracts and introductions in of independence paper (English language) academia, at the level of student essays and guidance, also in academic journals. It may be formulaic but the whole structure of a 3-part essay is formulaic isn’t it?

I’d welcome your comments on this. Apologies for declaration research the late reply but I’ve only just found this. I do say it’s a personal opinion! To expand on the reason I state above it’s a formula that I believe is overused especially in photosythesis take IELTS. 1. IELTS essays are not “academic essays” by any means, rather they are English language test essays. Declaration Of Independence? It seems slightly bonkers to introduce the language of academic papers into this format.

More to is that true the point if you do, then you should consistently use that level of language throughout the essay. 2. It is very often wrongly used. i.e. The formula doesn’t fit the question. 3. By using this formula students very frequently fail to outline their position in the introduction. Most examiners I know look for declaration of independence research paper a clear statement of the writer’s position in the intro – there is justification for this in the examining criteria. if you use this language, then that position is often unclear or resolves down to a unsatisfactory “I’m going to how do a essay talk about”. 4. I dislike this kind of research paper formulaic approach. The best essays are almost never formulaic – they address the question directly. My experience of IELTS candidates is that the more they tend towards a formula the less they engage with the question. Essay Jurisprudence? The formula can ensure they maintain a certain standard but progress stops. I have tried using your tips.

Could you please comment on research paper, my introduction. About Nature? Thank you. “There are different views whether everyone has the rights to enter a university or college program regardless their academic abilities. While other people think that this is not possible and only suitable candidates should be allowed to. In my point of view, higher level education may not be suitable for declaration of independence everyone when there are possibly better pathways for them.”

Hi Dominic Cole. I am from Hong Kong; I am looking for follow guidance below tips for my promotion writing examination and here I have found your site. I really appreciate you have shared various brilliant ideas and tips on declaration of independence, writing essays. I found it very helpful. Thank you so much. Hello Dominic, thanks for such a great web site, please, would you mind to check my intro ? ” successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions. Some people think this is guidance below fully justified while others think it is unfair” The view that sports professionals receive an income higher than other careers has generated controversy. While there are those who say this is declaration of independence research paper fairly fair, I shall argue that there are strong reasons why state should regulate this situation. Please evaluate the below introduction paragraph for political the housing topic mentioned above: Due to proliferation of population, there is a deficiency of homes in many countries.

Some people are expecting from the declaration government to construct homes in the countryside which would lead to serious damage to the environment. That About True? Instead, my view is that government should build the multistorey apartments to accomodate people in the cities. Sorry I simply don’t have the time to of independence research look at individual answers. But thank you for posting I’m sure others can learn from this. Could you please help me check my introduction? Thanks in political advance, Topic: There is an increasing shortage of housing in many countries. Some people believe that governments should build more housing in declaration the countryside, while others believe that this would damage the natural environment. Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

In the contemporary world these day, the lack of accommodation is a global issue.While some people hold the view that the how do a essay authorities can tackle this problem by constructing more housing in suburb, as far as I am concern, this solution will play havoc with the declaration of independence research environment with serious damage. Sorry I simply don’t have the time to look at individual answers. But thank you for posting I’m sure others can learn from this. hi diminic,i found ur website realy helpful. hers my intro fo hapines task. there are different views regarding the age when people feel happier themselves either childhood or adulthood.While i accept that people are more satisfied at their achieving age say in adulhood.I ,however,holds the opinion that people found themselves more happy at young age ,being free of responsibilities and stresses of life. intro fo house shortage snerio. House shortage is becoming pressing issue round the follow the assignment globe and demands serious actions to b taken to mitigate it.

Some people hold the declaration opinion of building new houses in photosythesis sburb which seems a logical soluton but in my view , in declaration of independence research order to save our natural environment,few alternatives need to b considered. Sorry I simply don’t have the time to look at individual answers. But thank you for posting I’m sure others can learn from this. First introduction about people thinking: the people are different in thinking of which age is the best for them.Most people said teenagers is the best because they do not have any responsilbilities.

Others think that if you are responsible you are happy and i agree. In the is that essays nature life there is declaration of independence research paper part of your life is the best.Some said that teenagers is the best but others said the take responsible life is better. I agree with this opinion in this part of life you will attend a lot of achievment depend on hard work in the past.

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4 Standout College Application Essays on Work, Money and Class. Each year, we issue an open casting call for high school seniors who have dared to address money, work or social class in their college application essays . From the large pile that arrived this spring, these four — about declaration of independence research paper parents, small business, landscapes and the meaning a single object can convey — stood out. The Assignment Guidance Below? The fifth essay in our package appeared on The New York Times’s new Snapchat Discover, and you can view it at this link by pressing the arrow/play button. ‘The professors’ home was a telescope to how the declaration of independence paper, other (more affluent) half lived’ At age 6, I remember the light filled openness of the underwater alex book report, house, how the whir of my mother’s vacuum floated from room to room. Paper? At 9, I remember how I used to lounge on the couch and watch Disney cartoons on the sideways refrigerator of a TV implanted in a small cave in the wall. At 12, I remember family photographs of the Spanish countryside hanging in the assignment below, every room. At 14, I remember vacuuming each foot of carpet in the massive house and folding pastel shirts fresh out of the dryer. I loved the house. I loved the way the windows soaked the house with light, a sort of bleach against declaration of independence paper any gloom. I loved how I could always find a book or magazine on any flat surface.

But the vacuum my mother used wasn’t ours. We never paid for cable. Photosythesis Take? The photographs weren’t of my family. The carpet I vacuumed I only saw once a week, and the pastel shirts I folded I never wore. The house wasn’t mine. My mother was only the cleaning lady, and I helped.

My mother and father had come as refugees almost twenty years ago from the country of Moldova. Declaration Of Independence Paper? My mother worked numerous odd jobs, but once I was born she decided she needed to do something different. Follow Below? She put an ad in the paper advertising house cleaning, and a couple, both professors, answered. They became her first client, and research, their house became the bedrock of essay political theory, our sustenance. Economic recessions came and of independence paper, went, but my mother returned every Monday, Friday and occasional Sunday. She spends her days in teal latex gloves, guiding a blue Hoover vacuum over what seems like miles of carpet. Essay? All the mirrors she’s cleaned could probably stack up to declaration of independence research paper, be a minor Philip Johnson skyscraper. This isn’t new for her. The vacuums and the gloves might be, but the work isn’t. How Do You Write A Essay? In Moldova, her family grew gherkins and tomatoes. She spent countless hours kneeling in the dirt, growing her vegetables with the of independence research paper, care that professors advise their proteges, with kindness and essay jurisprudence political theory, proactivity.

Today, the fruits of her labor have been replaced with the suction of declaration, her vacuum. The professors’ home was a telescope to how the how do a essay, other (more affluent) half lived. They were rarely ever home, so I saw their remnants: the lightly crinkled New York Times sprawled on the kitchen table, the overturned, half-opened books in their overflowing personal library, the TV consistently left on the National Geographic channel. I took these remnants as a celebrity-endorsed path to prosperity. I began to check out of independence paper, books from the school library and started reading the news religiously. Their home was a sanctuary for my dreams. It was there I, as a glasses-wearing computer nerd, read about a mythical place called Silicon Valley in Bloomberg Businessweek magazines. It was there, as a son of immigrants, that I read about a young senator named Barack Obama, the child of an immigrant, aspiring to underwater flinn book, be the president of the United States. The life that I saw through their home showed me that an immigrant could succeed in America, too. Work could be done with one’s hands and with one’s mind.

It impressed on me a sort of social capital that I knew could be used in America. The professors left me the elements to their own success, and all my life I’ve been trying to make my own reaction. Ultimately, the suction of the research, vacuum is what sustains my family. The squeal of her vacuum reminds me why I have the opportunity to drive my squealing car to school. A Essay? I am where I am today because my mom put an of independence research enormous amount of labor into how do you write, the formula of the American Dream. It’s her blue Hoover vacuums that hold up the of independence research, framework of my life. Someday, I hope my diploma can hold up the framework of hers. ‘Slowly, my mother’s gingham apron began to look more like metal armor.’ When it comes to service workers, as a society we completely disregard the manners instilled in us as toddlers. For seventeen years, I have awoken to bentham essay political, those workers, to declaration of independence research, clinking silverware rolled in cloth and porcelain plates removed from the the assignment guidance, oven in of independence, preparation for breakfast service. I memorized the geometry of is that essays about nature, place mats slid on research paper, metal trays, coffee cups turned downward, dirtied cloth napkins disposed on dining tables.

I knew never to wear pajamas outside in alex report, the public courtyard, and years of shushing from my mother informed me not to speak loudly in front of a guest room window. I grew up in the swaddled cacophony of morning chatter between tourists, professors, and videographers. I grew up conditioned in excessive politeness, fitted for making small talk with strangers. Declaration Research Paper? I grew up in a bed and breakfast , in the sticky thickness of the hospitality industry. And for a very long time I hated it. I was late to my own fifth birthday party in the park because a guest arrived five hours late without apology. Following a weeklong stay in which someone specially requested her room be cleaned twice a day, not once did she leave a tip for housekeeping. You Write A Essay? Small-business scammers came for a stop at declaration of independence the inn several times. Guests stained sheets, clogged toilets, locked themselves out of their rooms, and analysis, then demanded a discount. There exists between service workers and their customers an inherent imbalance of research paper, power: We meet sneers with apologies. The Assignment? At the end of declaration paper, their meal, or stay, or drink, we let patrons determine how much effort their server put into their job.

For most of my life I believed my parents were intense masochists for devoting their existences to the least thankful business I know: the very business that taught me how to discern imbalances of power. Soon I recognized this stem of injustice in is that essays nature, all sorts of everyday interactions. I came to understand how latent racism, sexism, classism and ableism structure our society — how tipping was only a synonym for “microaggression.” I became passionate. Sometimes enraged. I stumbled upon nonprofits, foundations, and political campaigns. I canvassed for declaration paper, Senate candidates, phone-banked for grass-roots action groups, served as a board member for the Women’s Foundation of Southern Arizona, reviewed grant applications for nonprofits and nature, organized events for the nearby children’s hospital. I devoted my time to declaration of independence research paper, the raw grit of that is that nature, helping people, and in the process I fell irrevocably in love with a new type of service: public service. At the same time, I worked midnight Black Friday retail shifts and of independence, scraped vomit off linoleum. When I brought home my first W-2, I had never seen my parents so proud. The truth, I recently learned, was that not all service is breathing flinn book report created equal. Seeing guests scream at my parents over a late airport taxi still sickens me even as I spend hours a week as a volunteer.

But I was taught all work is declaration paper noble, especially the work we do for others. Slowly, my mother’s gingham apron began to look more like metal armor. Photosythesis Take? I learned how to worship my parents’ gift for attentive listening, easily hearing the things guests were incapable of asking for — not sugar with their tea, but somebody to talk with while they waited for a conference call. I envied their ability to wear the declaration paper, role of self-assured host like a second skin, capable of tolerating any type of cruelty with a smile. Most of all, I admired my parents’ continuous trust in google, humanity to declaration research paper, not abuse their help. I realized that learning to serve people looks a lot like learning to trust them. ‘My Dell hid my privilege and my Mac hid my financial need’ The most exciting part was the laptop. My mom grabbed the thick envelope out of google case study analysis, my hands and read off the amenities associated with the Tang Scholarship to Phillips Academy: full tuition for all four years, a free summer trip, $20 a week for me to spend on all the Cheetos and nail polish my heart desired, and of independence, finally, a free laptop.

I had never had a computer of my own before, and to bentham essay political theory, me the prospect symbolized a world of new possibilities. I was the only student from my public middle school I knew to of independence, ever go to an elite boarding school, and it felt like being invited into a selective club. My first week at Andover, dazed by its glamour and that about nature, newness, I fought my way to the financial aid office to of independence, pick up the laptop; I sent my mom a photo of me grinning and clutching the cardboard box. Back in my dorm room, I pulled out my prize, a heavy but functional Dell, and marveled at its sleek edges, its astonishing speed. But the love story of my laptop came clamoring to a halt. In the library, as I stumbled to take, negotiate a space to fit in, I watched my friends each pull out a MacBook. Each was paper-thin and seemingly weightless. And mine, heavy enough to of independence paper, hurt my back and constantly sighing like a tired dog, was distinctly out of place. Follow The Assignment? My laptop, which I had thought was my ticket to the elite world of Andover, actually gave me away as the outsider I was. For a long time, this was the crux of my Andover experience: always an outsider.

When I hung out with wealthier friends, I was disoriented by how different their lives were from mine. While they spent summers in Prague or Paris, I spent mine mining the constellation of thrift stores around New Haven. The gap between full-scholarship and declaration research paper, full-pay felt insurmountable. But I also felt like an flinn report outsider going to meetings for the full-scholarship affinity group. My parents attended college and grew up wealthier than I did, giving me cultural capital many of my full-scholarship friends never had access to. Moreover, I’m white and could afford occasional concert tickets or sparkly earrings.

The laptop, carried by all full-scholarship students and coded with hidden meanings, pivoted my friends’ understandings of me. At home, I grew up middle class, then became the privileged prep school girl. But at Andover, suddenly, I was poor. Trying to declaration of independence research, reconcile these conflicting identities, I realized how complex and mutable class is. That Essays About True Nature? My class is connected to my parents’ income, but it’s also rooted in cultural knowledge and objects that are charged with greater meaning. Which brings me back to the laptop: in the middle of my senior fall, my exhausted Dell broke and I couldn’t afford another. When I managed to borrow a slim Mac from my school, I felt the walls around me reorient. I hoped that now I wouldn’t have to think about the electric web of privilege and power every time I sent an email. Declaration Paper? Instead, I felt a new anxiety: I worried when I sat in the magnificent dining hall with my beautiful computer that I had lost an important part of my identity. Bentham Jurisprudence Political Theory? When I started at Andover, these constant dueling tensions felt like a trap: like I would never be comfortable anywhere. (The school sensed it too, and all full-financial aid students now receive MacBooks.) But maybe it’s the opposite of a trap.

Maybe I’m culturally ambidextrous, as comfortable introducing a speaker on the stage of Andover’s century-old chapel as getting my nose pierced in of independence, a tattoo parlor in New Haven. My hyperawareness of you write, how my Dell hid my privilege and declaration research, how my Mac hid my financial need pushed me to case analysis, be aware of what complicated stories were hiding behind my classmates’ seemingly simple facades. I am a full-scholarship student who benefits from cultural, socioeconomic and racial privilege: my story isn’t easy, but it’s still mine. Of Independence Research Paper? ‘On one side of me, nature is a hobby. On the other, it is a way of life.’ I live on the edge. I live at the place where trees curl into theory, bushes to escape the wind. My home is the declaration of independence research, slippery place between the suburbs and stone houses and hogans.

I see the evolution of the telephone poles as I leave the reservation, having traveled with my mom for photosythesis take, her work. The telephone poles on the reservation are crooked and tilted with wire clumsily strung between them. Declaration Research? As I enter Flagstaff, my home, the poles begin to stand up straight. On one side of me, nature is that a hobby. On the other, it is a way of life.

I live between a suburban land of plenty and a rural land of scarcity, where endless skies and pallid grass merge with apartment complexes and outdoor malls. I balance on the edge of drought. In the summers, when the research, rain doesn’t come, my father’s truck kicks dust into the air. A layer of earthy powder settles over the wildflowers and the grass. The stale ground sparks ferocious wildfires. Smoke soars into the air like a flare from a boat lost at sea.

Everyone prays for that is that about, rain. We fear that each drop of water is the last. We fear an invasion of the desert that stretches around Phoenix. We fear a heat that shrivels the trees, turns them to cactuses. I exist at the epicenter of political discourse. Fierce liberalism swells against declaration of independence staunch conservatism in the hallways of my high school and on the streets of the downtown. You Write? When the declaration of independence research, air is warm, the shops and follow guidance below, restaurants open their doors. Professionals in suits mingle with musicians and artists sporting dreadlocks and ripped jeans. Together, they lament the drought, marvel at the brevity of the ski season.

I live on the edge of an urban and rural existence. At my mother’s house, we ride bikes down paved streets. Of Independence Paper? We play catch with the neighbor kids. That Is That Essays About True? We wage war with water guns. At my father’s house, we haul water. We feed the horses and chickens. We chase the fox away from the chicken coop. We watch deer grazing, not ten yards away. Of Independence Research? We turn the soil in the garden.

When the rain and the soil and the sun and the plants give birth to fruit, we eat it straight from the vines. Traditional Navajo weaving and case study, prints of Picasso’s paintings adorn the walls of both homes. I straddle the innocence of my youth and the mystery of my adult life. That, too, is a precipice. I know I must leap into adulthood and leave the balancing act of of independence research, Flagstaff life behind.

Still, I belong at the place where opposites merge in a lumpy heap of beautiful contradictions. I crave the is that essays, experiences only found at the edge. As I dive into of independence research paper, adulthood, into college, I hope that I can find a new place that fosters diversity in all its forms, a new edge upon which I can learn to balance.

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Outline of the Declaration of Independence

cool hand luke essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. In these dangerous times, where it seems the world is ripping apart at declaration of independence, the seams, we can all learn how to survive from those who stare death squarely in the face every day and [we] should reach out to each other and bond as a community, rather than hide from the terrors of case analysis, life at the end of the millennium. Jonathan Larson wrote these words shortly before his death at age thirty-five, and they were discovered on his computer by his family after he died. They serve as a fitting tribute to of independence his only underwater alex flinn, Broadway musical, the mega-hit Rent . Larson, a hard-working, long suffering, not yet recognized composer-lyricist-bookwriter had been working for seven years on the cheerfully transgressive Rent , a 1990s rock/pop riff on Puccini’s beloved opera La Bohme, this time set in New York City’s East Village. Rent is so many things to so many people. It was the first musical in decades that younger audiences really identified with, that speaks in of independence paper, their voice, that voices their concerns, that tackles their issues. It breathed new commercial life into the Broadway musical, possibly signaling the beginning of the end of the great divide between pop music and how do, theatre music, which has existed since the advent of rock and roll in of independence research, the 1950s. Even the title means different things to different people. It represents the google case financial burden young people feel as they graduate college full of declaration, knowledge but absent any marketable job skills, thrown into a real world where high ideals don’t pay the rent. But the title also highlights the temporary nature of these characters’ lives, the about true month-to-month living without permanence or promises. The characters Collins and Angel sing to each other in the song I’ll Cover You that though love can’t be bought, at least it can be rented.

In other words, their happiness won’t be forever – both of them have AIDS – but it’s theirs for paper, a while. And the word rent also means torn, Larson’s favorite meaning of the title, and certainly the characters in this show are torn between conflicting desires – between comfort and idealism, between love and dignity, between anger and pain, between the you write fear of declaration paper, intimacy and underwater alex flinn, the fear of getting hurt. Research! The word rent means shredded in grief or rage. It means split apart when it describes communities, families, or other relationships. And it also means torn open by painful feelings, something nearly every character in the show feels at some point. And all the breathing complexity of that simple, four-letter word parallels the construction of this fascinating musical. Larson’s lifelong goal was to combine the declaration of independence research Broadway tradition with contemporary pop music, a very difficult task at which many before him had failed. After seven years of workshops and re-writes, the show was scheduled to open in previews off-Broadway at New York Theatre Workshop, on January 25, 1996. But Larson had been feeling ill.

He’d been to two hospitals; one diagnosed him with food poisoning, the other with the flu. The night before the first preview, after a great final dress rehearsal, Larson went home, put a pot of water on the stove for tea, collapsed, and died of an guidance below aortic aneurysm. In June 1993, New York Theatre Workshop did a reading of declaration of independence paper, Rent . The show was a mess but showed real promise. Another reading was done in 1994, this time with director Michael Greif on board. In October 1995 a reading was done in which the entire show was a flashback from Angel’s funeral.

In December 1995 Larson finished another revision that returned to the earlier structure and that is that essays about true, he wrote a one-sentence summary of the of independence research show: Rent is about a community celebrating life, in a essay, the face of death and AIDS, at the turn of the century. This statement of purpose helped later on. After his death, as previews began, the artistic team found themselves trying to figure out what Larson would have changed and what he would have kept working on. They went through his notes to of independence research see what he still had been unhappy with, and did their best to essay jurisprudence political theory make decisions they thought he would have made. His one-sentence summary helped guide them through the declaration of independence difficult process of finishing a show without its author.

After two weeks of a essay, previews in early 1996, the show opened to rave reviews and standing ovations. Four months later it moved to Broadway and became the biggest thing to hit the Great White Way since Phantom of the Opera . Larson received a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for his work. He had frequently told his friends that he knew he was the future of musical theatre. And he just might have been if he’d had a chance. The show moved to Broadway and opened at the Nederlander Theatre on April 29, 1996, to both mixed and rave reviews. The New York Times called it an declaration research paper exhilarating, landmark rock opera, and said it shimmers with hope for the future of the American musical. Time magazine called it the most exuberant and original American musical to breathing alex report come along this decade. The Wall Street Journal called it the best new musical since the 1950s. On opening night, the performance began with Anthony Rapp, who played Mark, dedicating the show to of independence research the memory of Jonathan Larson. Rent was nominated for a staggering ten Tony Awards and won four, including Best Musical, Best Score, and Best Book. It won six Drama Desk Awards, three Obie Awards, the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for Best Musical, an Outer Critics Circle Award, and a Drama League Award.

As had happened with Hair twenty-eight years before, Broadway borrowed from the alternative theatre community and discovered a gold mine. In 1992, Larson had written of his show, Rent also exalts Otherness, glorifying artists and photosythesis take, counterculture as necessary to a healthy civilization. Larson and later, many commentators, called the show a Hair for the 90s and indeed it shares much with the 1968 landmark rock musical. Daphne Rubin-Vega, who originated the role of declaration research, Mimi, said, We didn’t want to go to Broadway to take become Broadway stars; we went to kick the motherfuckin’ doors of Broadway open, because it’s old-school and stodgy. We were invited there and that was cool.

The show became a cultural phenomenon. The cast soon found themselves in The New York Times, Newsweek, Vanity Fair, Rolling Stone, and Harper’s Bazaar. Declaration Of Independence Research! They appeared on google case analysis The Late Show with David Letterman, The Charlie Rose Show, and The Tonight Show , and sang Seasons of Love at of independence, the 1996 Democratic National Convention. Both Hard Copy and Prime Time Live did stories on is that essays about true nature the show. Frank Rich, New York Times political columnist and former senior theatre critic, wrote in a Times op-ed piece, At so divisive a time in our country’s culture, Rent shows signs of revealing a large, untapped appetite for something better. Of Independence Research Paper! Both the classical music reviewer and the pop music reviewer for the Times weighed in on how do you write Rent , neither raving but both finding much to admire. Because the producers were as new to Broadway as the paper cast was, they did things very differently. That Essays About True Nature! They set aside the first two rows at declaration research paper, each performance as $20 seats so that the people the show was about could afford to see it. These special tickets would go on google case sale at 6:00 p.m. each night and the line usually formed by declaration research paper noon on weekdays and often twenty-four hours in advance on weekends. Rent fans – sometimes called Rent Heads – would bring tents, food, and google analysis, CD players to pass the time while they waited. Some had seen the show dozens of declaration of independence paper, times.

But in July 1997 the line was replaced with a lottery system. Still, the actors love having the $20 seats in front – they say the first two rows are always the most lively, the most passionate, and the most appreciative. But after the opening, great controversy circled around the mega-hit. Larson’s dramaturg from New York Theatre Workshop, Lynn Thompson, sued the family for part of the show’s profits. She lost. Sarah Schulman, a playwright and novelist, sued the follow the assignment guidance below estate because she claimed Larson stole some of his plot and characters from her novel People in declaration of independence paper, Trouble . She also lost. Essay Jurisprudence Political! In fact, there is nothing in Rent that even comes close to the plot and of independence research, characters of how do you write, Schulman’s book. Angel is the wise wizard in this collective hero myth story. Declaration Of Independence! She's almost other-worldly in her Zen-like understanding of the world around her, her wisdom, her compassion. She's there to teach the others (and us) a valuable lesson, to see the world in terms of what we can give instead of what we can get. As Collins says to Roger in Act II, Angel helped us believe in love.

I can't believe you disagree. On the other hand, several of the central characters in Rent are dealing with much bigger issues than nineteen- or twenty-year-olds should face – AIDS, death, suicide, drug addiction, unsafe streets, big but dubious offers from TV execs. How many college-age kids ever grapple with anything like that? To call Roger, Collins, or Angel whiny misses the photosythesis take entire point of the story. Perhaps the people who hate Rent see their younger selves in of independence, these characters and they don't like that. After all, most of us are whiny and how do a essay, selfish when you're young (and we artsies can be the worst); we still have growing up left to do.

Though to of independence research paper be honest, a lot of how do a essay, people in their forties still have growing up to paper do. It’s not hard to see a parallel to American politics today. At the beginning of our story, these kids are the Republican Party: I want what I want, and google case analysis, if the declaration of independence research paper other guy also gets what he wants, that's fine, but don't ask me for any. They have to grow up and become more like the Democratic Party, believing that caring for the least of these makes us all better off. Angel teaches her friends – and us ? – to be more Christ-like. After all, Rent is about the least of these, the how do poor, the outcasts, the sick, the rejected, the kind of people Jesus hung out with. For much of the of independence paper twentieth century, Alphabet City has been where mainstream society's rejects form their own community, their own support system, to some extent even their own economy. It's the place where Mark can toast, To being an us for once, instead of photosythesis take, a them. Declaration Paper! It's a place where Mark can ask, Is anyone in the mainstream? because he knows the is that about true nature answer is no. Not here . Maybe the most potent part of the magic of Rent – and declaration paper, make no mistake, Rent is genuinely, inexplicably mystical in the same way that Hair is – is that its production requires the political same kind of community the show depicts.

Any cast of Rent has to be, by Larson's design, racially and sexually diverse. And that's why performing and paper, watching Rent can be so powerful – the sense of community and the intense emotions aren't just realistic; they're real . The actors aren't just portraying all that; they're actually living it onstage. The Birth of Rent. Originally the idea for Rent was Billy Aronson’s, a young playwright who saw the similarities between La Bohme ’s artists at underwater alex flinn, the turn of the last century in Paris, and declaration, the young artists at the turn of this century in America. In 1989, he was looking for follow, a composer to collaborate with and Playwrights Horizon suggested Larson.

When the two met, Aronson said to Larson, It’s time for a new Hair . Though they stuck to the basic plot of La Bohme , they exchanged tuberculosis for AIDS, and Paris for New York’s East Village. In 1991, after only declaration of independence research, minimal progress, Larson asked Aronson’s permission to is that about go ahead on his own with Rent and Aronson bowed out. Larson decided to stray from Puccini’s opera, to consult the novel on which the declaration paper opera was based, Scenes de la Vie de Bohme, and to go his own way. Study! The opera’s poet Rodolfo became Roger the songwriter. Marcello the painter became Mark the filmmaker. Colline became Tom Collins (both philosophers) and Schaunard became Angel Dumott Schunard (both musicians). Musetta became Maureen the performance artist. Benoit the landlord became Benny the declaration research roommate turned landlord.

And in Larson’s greatest departure, Mimi the google case study analysis embroideress became Mimi the SM dancer. When Rent opened, everybody made a big deal out of its connection to La Bohme . But Rent is not an updating of of independence, La Bohme or an essay theory adaptation; it’s a response to it. Declaration Of Independence Paper! The characters are similar but that’s where the google case study analysis comparison ends. While La Bohme romanticizes death (which was very trendy in 1896 when it premiered), Rent celebrates life with all its might, as evidenced by all the references to paper life in the show (the Life Caf, the Angel’s group Life Support, and others). While Bohme is tragic, Rent is joyous. While Bohme ’s bohemian world is romantic and poetic, the world of Rent is breathing alex report tough, gritty, angry, and real . While Bohme has Musetta’s Waltz, Rent has the cynical Tango Maureen.

While Bohme observes the bohemians from a distance, Rent is written by a bohemian, someone who had trouble paying the research paper rent, whose friends were dying of AIDS; and it fully inhabits that world. Larson kept the basic character profiles and the establishing situation from Puccini’s first act, but then he went off on bentham jurisprudence political his own. Of Independence Research Paper! Like Rent , Bohme opens on how do you write Christmas Eve, while two artist roommates try to declaration paper keep warm in their apartment. Rodolfo burns his manuscript for heat. Colline and Schaunard show up with food and wine and Schaunard tells them the wild tale of how he made some unexpected money that day. In Bohme , he’s hired to play piano until he drives a parrot to death; in Rent , he’s hired to play drums until he drives a dog to suicide. Schaunard announces he’s taking them all out to follow guidance eat. Research Paper! Benoit shows up asking for rent. All but Rodolfo leave for their favorite caf, and once they’re gone, Mimi appears, asking for a light for her candle, whereupon Rodolfo and take, Mimi fall in love. All that is also in Rent . There’s a very funny insider’s joke in this scene in Rent , in the song Will You Light My Candle, a joke exclusively for fans of La Bohme . In Bohme , Mimi comes back the second time because she lost her key on declaration of independence research paper Rodolfo’s floor when she fainted.

In Rent , Mimi comes back the second time also because she lost her key – a different kind of key – a kilo of below, cocaine. Of Independence Paper! ( Key is take drug users’ slang for of independence, kilo .) So Larson has both remained true to Bohme – Mimi came back for her key – and that is that true nature, simultaneously updated it drastically. The other insider’s joke in the show is that Rent ’s Roger is trying to write his one great song and keeps coming up with something that sounds like Musetta’s waltz from La Bohme. Up to declaration research this point, the two stories are basically the same. But then Rent and La Bohme part company, as Larson’s characters pursue more 90s storylines. Alex Book! After the set-up, only Rent ’s flea market, the caf, and Mimi’s (near) death have counterparts in the opera. Though Larson takes the operatic Mimi’s actual death and transfers it to Angel, while Rent ’s Mimi survives. Larson wrote detailed biographies of all his characters and this gave him the freedom to leave the of independence research paper details of breathing underwater flinn book report, Bohme behind and create his own world. In the biographies he wrote, as described in the Rent coffee table book, Mark and Benny were roommates at Brown University; Roger’s band was called the declaration research paper Well Hungarians; Mimi left home when she was fifteen; and Maureen dreamed of that about, being a famous performance artist like Patti Smith or Laurie Anderson. Rent is Larson’s more positive view of the world, with details and declaration research paper, people from photosythesis, his own life mixed in to give the story resonance. In real life, Larson himself actually had to throw his keys down to research the street for people to get into photosythesis take his apartment, and he had to run orange extension cords all over of independence research, his apartment to make up for the lack of outlets.

He often went to support meetings with his best friend who was HIV-positive. You Write A Essay! He had once lost a girlfriend to another woman. Declaration! All of this found its way into follow guidance below Rent , along with the declaration paper names of three of his friends who had died of AIDS, in the support group scene. Though Larson strayed greatly from the opera, he used many details from the novel upon underwater alex flinn report, which the declaration of independence research opera is based, Scenes de la vie de Bohme by Henri Murger. The book is that is that unlike the declaration paper opera in many ways, particularly in its wonderful, raunchy sense of humor. Photosythesis Take! The book is funny, first and declaration of independence research paper, foremost, and the four friends are much more like the four friends in Rent than they are like the characters in take, the opera. The book is chock full of rampant casual sex and declaration of independence paper, other delightful decadences, a remarkable thing for about nature, a book written in of independence paper, the 1840s. Also in the book, Mimi’s great tragic death of tuberculosis really belongs to a one-chapter character named Francine, who was in love with a man named Jacques, who died of grief a few days after Francine. Follow Below! Lots of details in Rent come from the book: the importance of of independence research paper, Collins’ coat, their regular restaurant where they often order nothing and don’t always pay the bill, the constant burning of essays about nature, manuscripts and letters for heat, Marcel/Mark’s decision to declaration of independence paper sell out his art, and the structural significance of Christmas Eve.

The novel makes a strong (and constant) point of the fact that the four bohemians are fairly irresponsible, selfish, and immature (though utterly charming), a charge leveled by critics against Larson’s characters. Also, in the book Rudolf is follow the assignment guidance below able to declaration research paper write his one great poem only after Mimi has left him, paralleling Roger’s song Your Eyes. And just as the song revives Mimi in the musical, Mimi in the novel sees Rudolf’s poem in a magazine and it’s (indirectly) what brings them together again. Also, the novel is organized into dozens of short, seemingly randomly ordered and unconnected incidents. When critics complained about Rent ’s structure, they probably didn’t realize it mirrored the bentham essay jurisprudence theory original novel. There are differences too. In the novel, Rudolf actually marries Mimi, but they separate after eight months because Mimi has champagne tastes and paper, cheats on him repeatedly with rich men (mirroring Mimi and Benny in a essay, Rent) . Although the novel does end with Mimi showing up at Rudolf’s apartment half-dead, starving, and weak (though not on drugs), she doesn’t die there.

They call the doctor and research, put her in the hospital, from which a false report of her death is take delivered to Rudolf. But once he finds out it’s false and he finds Mimi again, she has actually died. Declaration Research Paper! (And people thought Rent could get confusing!) Why It Shouldn’t Have Worked. There are so many reasons why Rent should not have worked, why it should not have been a success off-Broadway, much less on Broadway, much less an international phenomenon. First, rock and roll does not work in the theatre. Admittedly, that’s a pretty board statement but it’s almost always true. Certainly Hair worked, but to this day no one really knows why. Several shows have succeeded that employed a watered-down, Broadway-pop vocabulary, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita, Cats, Les Misrables, Miss Saigon, Jekyll Hyde, but those scores are not real rock. And Tommy doesn’t really count because it was a hugely successful rock album and movie decades before it ever hit Broadway; it’s impossible to essays about true nature know if it would have succeeded without its reputation. And it too was pretty watered down and sanitized on Broadway. Most pop musicals that have succeeded are far more pop than rock, and really soft pop at that.

With the obvious exceptions of Hair and Tommy , when Broadway tries to speak in the voice of declaration research, genuine rock and roll, the show is almost always a flop. The reason is that in rock music the take most important element is the beat. The melody, the declaration chords, and the lyrics are often very repetitive and they all serve the beat. Generally, it’s the a essay emotion and energy that matter, not the intellectual content. Of Independence Paper! But in theatre music, the lyrics are the most important element. Essay Political! The lyrics not only have to be heard and understood (not always a priority in rock) but they also have to of independence tell the story, to advance plot and character. To do that, they have to convey clearly a lot of information in very few words; repetition is a luxury modern theatre composers and photosythesis take, lyricists can’t afford.

So it follows that Rent shouldn’t have worked because its music is genuine rock and declaration research, roll (though more 70s than 90s). But theatre audiences loved it and so did the pop music audience, though hard-core rockers denounced it as imitation. Perhaps to work on stage, it couldn’t have been pure, up-to-the-minute, on-the-radio rock, but it was real. Larson was as tuned in to breathing flinn book rock as he was to traditional Broadway musicals, and he did the declaration of independence research near impossible by breathing successfully blending the two without emasculating either, creating a kind of declaration, Broadway fusion rock that satisfied both audiences. The CD quickly became the best selling cast album of the follow the assignment guidance decade.

But the question remains: why did it work? Were Broadway audiences ready for of independence, Rent because the blander Broadway pop of Andrew Lloyd Webber had prepared them to accept a more legitimate rock sound? Did Tommy help pave the way? Or was the success of Rent an audience rebellion against the abundance of elevator pop on Broadway? And if not for Rent , would later pop musicals like Jekyll Hyde and The Scarlet Pimpernel have been so popular?

It’s impossible to know for sure. The second reason Rent shouldn’t have worked is that it was a big mess. How Do! Its first several incarnations were so full of ideas, so full of everything Jonathan Larson wanted to say, that no one could make heads or tails of it. There were so many themes he wanted to explore, so much of his wide-eyed optimism and naivet that he wanted to paper inject into his story, so many plot lines. And the specter of La Bohme was always getting in the way. Photosythesis Take! It wasn’t until director Michael Greif entered the picture – and dramaturg Lynn Thompson and several others – that a coherent story began to emerge. And there were other issues.

Many of the people involved thought his early depiction of homeless people was nave and declaration paper, borderline offensive. Many people thought too many of his characters were one-dimensional. How Do You Write! And Larson could be very defensive, very closed to outside feedback. But luckily, as he began to trust Greif and others, he opened up and listened to what they had to paper say. He began to trust their criticisms and makes changes. That Is That Essays About True! But he never finished his show. For many musicals, the preview period is when the declaration paper most important work gets done, and essay jurisprudence theory, Larson died before previews began. Even now in of independence research, its finished version, Rent has dramatic and structural problems. Is it better for you write, its roughness and imperfection, more accessible, more loveable for its flaws? Quite possibly. The third reason it shouldn’t have worked is that Broadway audiences generally don’t want to see musicals about overtly sexual gays and lesbians (although the de-sexualized varieties are okay), or SM dancers, drug addicts, drag queens, or performance artists.

And they certainly don’t want to see these people have simulated sex onstage. Like Hair did, Rent brought forbidden content to Broadway and ended up a commercial success. This is even more surprising in an era when Disney is becoming the king of declaration paper, Broadway with its sanitized, family-friendly, substance-free musicals selling out and winning Tony Awards. Was Rent ’s success due to a backlash against a Broadway turning to Disney and the bloodless pop musicals epitomized by the work of Frank Wildhorn? Were Broadway audiences hungry for more adult fare? Did the growing prevalence of gay and lesbian characters on TV and in movies make audiences more comfortable with this material? Did Larson’s innocence and generosity of spirit come through these characters so warmly that audiences couldn’t help but care about them?

Again, it’s impossible to know. Some critics complained that there was no irony in is that essays, the material, no cynicism, none of Sondheim’s frosty intellectualism, as one critic put it, that everything in Rent was laid bare, right there on the surface. Paper! Perhaps that’s another reason why audiences embraced it. The last reason the show shouldn’t have worked is that it was the anti-spectacle. It had virtually no set – a couple tables, folding chairs, a platform for google study analysis, the band, and a junk sculpture on research one side of the stage. It’s costumes came from the actors’ own closets and from thrift stores. Google Study Analysis! The show looked sparser and more low-budget than anything in years. This low-rent show (pun intended) opened at a time when the of independence research paper other hits on Broadway were Sunset Boulevard, Show Boat, Beauty and the Beast, Les Misrables , Miss Saigon, Phantom of the Opera, Cats , and google, a tastelessly overproduced Grease, expensive spectacles one and declaration of independence research, all.

Why did audiences embrace Rent, a show that had neither chandelier nor helicopter? Then again, though Les Misrables had the turntable and barricade, many of the assignment, its scenes were played on a bare stage. And opening at the same time as Rent was Savion Glover’s definition-defying dance musical Bring on paper da Noise, Bring on follow below da Funk , which also used virtually no sets. Opening the following season was the of independence revival of Chicago which had less set than Rent did. Maybe the essay theory time was just right. Maybe audiences were just ready. Maybe they were sick of empty calories. But aside from all these problems with the show as a whole, there are also some other problems that may or may not have been fixed had Larson not died. Despite its much touted diversity – blacks, Latinos, gays and declaration research paper, lesbians, cross-dressers, junkies – the that essays true nature two main characters (including the story’s narrator) are both straight white guys from suburbia, just like Larson was.

Did these two white guys make it easier for declaration of independence research paper, the audience to accept the others? Were the others just tokens? People argued both sides of the issue. And what about Mark and Roger’s refusal to pay Benny rent for their apartment? Why is that portrayed as such a gutsy gesture? Do they deserve to live rent-free and job-free merely because they’re struggling artists? And let’s not forget that they’re struggling artists by choice . They could get jobs. Larson did; he waited tables for a living.

In a pinch, they could move back home with their parents or ask their parents for money. Flinn! Their self-identification with the real homeless people seems artificial, and declaration research paper, perhaps even a bit offensive. It’s safe to say that most of the homeless people living in the tent city on Benny’s lot are not there by choice, some probably suffering from mental illness, addiction, and who knows what else? Then again, this issue was raised over how do a essay, Hair – why were these kids panhandling on the streets when they came from middle class suburban homes, when most of them were college educated? Is it idealism, naivet, or just arrogance when Mark and Roger declare they’re not going to pay rent this year or next even next year? Back to the Future. Rent didn’t really break that much genuinely new ground (one might argue that Grief’s staging did more than Larson’s material), but like Oklahoma! fifty years earlier, its triumph was in bringing together what had gone before it, combining many past innovations all in declaration of independence research, one new work, and doing it with great skill, and more important, great success. As mentioned before, innovations generally only get carried on if they show up in hit shows.

In fact, Larson’s great achievement and the reason for you write, Rent ’s enormous appeal to declaration of independence research so many different kinds of people lies precisely in the heady mix of musical theatre traditionalism and innovation. The show’s influences are many. Like the early musicals of Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber ( Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita) and the musicals of breathing underwater book, Schnberg and Boublil ( Les Misrables, Miss Saigon ), Rent is through-sung, with almost no spoken dialogue. This is declaration paper certainly nothing new. Broadway’s pop operas have been around since the google case early 1970s and though their often over-blown spectacle has fallen out of vogue for the moment, the pop operas will no doubt continue. (It’s interesting to note that Larson’s idol Stephen Sondheim has never written a through-sung musical. Sondheim enjoys the back-and-forth between spoken dialogue and declaration of independence research paper, singing.) Like Lloyd Webber and Schnberg, Larson wrote self-contained songs as well as duets, group numbers (some with beautiful, carefully constructed counterpoint and harmonies), and operatic style recitative, using the structural vocabulary of classical opera with the harmonic and rhythmic language of rock. One could argue that Larson did all this better than those who went before him, but it wasn’t new. (A pause here for that about true nature, some parenthetical comments about one of my greatest pet peeves.

Too many people – experts even – habitually refer to pop and rock operas as through-composed . This is not correct. What they mean is of independence through-sung , meaning that there is no dialogue, that everything is sung. Through-composed means something entirely different. About Nature! It means that the music never repeats itself, that no two verses have the research same music, that there are no reprises in Act II, that the you write a essay composer writes different music for research, every moment. I don’t know that I’ve ever seen a musical that is through-composed, although I’ve seen many that are through-sung. All musicals repeat music in some way and certainly Andrew Lloyd Webber, the king of the pop opera, does it a lot . Some people tell me I should lighten up, and they may be right, but either the labels we use have meaning or they’re worthless.) Larson also wasn’t the first to adapt classical opera for the musical theatre.

Oscar Hammerstein II did it with Carmen Jones in 1943, by updating Bizet’s opera Carmen, moving it to the American South, and writing all new lyrics. Jurisprudence Political Theory! Jim Luigs and Scott Warrender did it in declaration of independence, 1995 with Das Barbec , which recast Wagner’s operatic Ring cycle as a country western musical comedy, but this was more parody than adaptation. What Larson did, creating new music and the assignment, new text, and even freely adapting the plot, was arguably new. In a very real way, Larson borrowed from the musicals of the 20s and 30s and the work of the Gershwins, Cole Porter, Rodgers and Hart, and others, by writing in a genuine pop music style, a style that the audience hears in their everyday lives, a style that instantly makes the language of the musical accessible to the untrained ear. Surely today, no one can escape rock/pop music. It’s in the movies, in commercials, even in dentists’ offices. Of Independence Research Paper! And like the songwriters of the 20s and 30s did, Larson tells his story in the musical language of the how do you write a essay people, something Broadway has rarely done (or at declaration of independence, least rarely done well) since the 1950s. Larson followed the lead of case, Rodgers and Hammerstein’s early musicals ( Oklahoma! , Carousel, South Pacific ) by telling a story that directly addresses important social issues and problems. And as in Oklahoma! , Larson’s story is about a threat to the community; in Oklahoma! it’s Jud Fry, in Rent it’s AIDS. He used long-form musical scenes, which were first developed by Hammerstein, in declaration paper, Show Boat with Jerome Kern, and in Oklahoma! and Carousel with Richard Rodgers, a device perfected by Larson’s mentor Stephen Sondheim, most notably in Sweeney Todd . (And like Sondheim did in Sweeney , Larson even quoted the dies irae, a musical motif from the mass for the dead, in the song La Vie Boheme.

He also mentioned Sondheim in that song.) Larson also learned from google analysis, Hammerstein’s example that the truly great writers always write what they believe. Sondheim writes about psychologically complex, neurotic New Yorkers because that’s what he knows and understands. Declaration Research! Hammerstein wrote about cattle standing like statues because that’s what he understood and believed in. A Essay! And like Hammerstein, Larson wrote with tremendous optimism, an almost embarrassing naivt, and a genuine love of life, because that’s who he was, despite living in the midst of the AIDS pandemic and watching many of his closest friends die. But like Sondheim, Larson also focused more than anything else on research paper the way people connect (and fail to connect), one of the most important themes in Rent (as evidenced by Larson’s quote at the beginning of this chapter) and a theme Sondheim returns to in almost every one of his shows. Larson followed in google, the footsteps of West Side Story in depicting the seamy, gritty side of life on the streets of New York, and in the footsteps of of independence, William Finn’s Falsettos trilogy in his matter-of-fact treatment of gay characters.

Like Grand Hotel and Sondheim’s Into the Woods , Larson successfully manipulated numerous storylines, weaving them in and out of a essay, each other. Declaration Research Paper! He followed Cabaret and Company in their treatment of social issues and their use of commentary songs. He and case, Greif followed The Fantasticks and A Chorus Line by declaration of independence paper using virtually no set. All this is not to say that Larson stole from any of these shows; he learned from them. He was a true Broadway baby, a serious, passionate student of the American musical theatre and he synthesized all that had gone before him to bentham jurisprudence political create a new creature, one that had clear ancestors but still stood on its own.

He did in research paper, 1996 what Rodgers and Hammerstein did in 1943 with Oklahoma! – he knocked Broadway on its ass. We can only hope that, like Oklahoma! , Larson’s Rent will become a model for the new generation of Broadway musical artists. It’s Between God and Me. What does Rent think about take, God and paper, religion? The one time religion is really invoked in Rent , early in La Vie Bohme, it's held up for sustained mockery, including ironic quotes from the Latin mass and the Jewish prayer for the dead. Religion does not serve this community. The one time we see a representative of religion in the show, it's a nasty priest who's hassling Collins about paying for the funeral.

One other passing reference to God comes from the homeless: Can't you spare a dime or two? Here but for is that, the grace of God go you. It's an interesting line, since most of the characters don't seem to think much about God or religion. Declaration Of Independence! But with homeless people singing these lines, it might remind us of Bill Maher's contention that it's easier for middle-class and wealthy people to be atheists; it's a luxury of sorts. Those who are poor, the least of these, those who struggle to survive every day, don't always have that luxury. Then, midway through La Vie Bohme, we get this gem: It's between God and me. While some might see the jurisprudence theory suggestions of a belief in of independence, God here, it's such a confrontational, aggressive statement that we can't take it at face value. These kids are telling us they think the rules of Leviticus and google case, the rest of the Bible are silly and anachronistic.

There's not even a hint of respect for those rules or their source here. But aside from paper, these few references, God and religion are mostly absent in bentham jurisprudence political theory, this world. Take a look at the lyric of declaration of independence paper, Another Day: There's only this. Or life is yours to miss. No day but today . Millions of underwater alex flinn book report, people have sung these words since Larson wrote them, but how many of them have stopped to of independence research think about them? Many people hear that lyric as just a reminder to follow guidance live for declaration of independence research paper, the present, especially for these characters who have an uncertain future. But this lyric is saying a lot more than Live in the present. This lyric does two jobs, both giving the community some context, in political theory, the form of the support group, and also doing some important character work between Mimi and Roger. There's only declaration of independence paper, this . Could that be the show's – or Larson's – rejection of organized religion and revealed word, rejection of a merciful God who brings AIDS down on his people, of various, conflicting codes of morality, of the moral cluelessness of a 2,000-year-old religion?

There is no God , this lyric is telling us; there's only us . Political Theory! There is no heaven, no afterlife, no ultimate reward or punishment; there's only this life, here, now. Or as John Lennon put it: Imagine there's no heaven; It's easy if you try. No hell below us, Above us only declaration of independence research, sky. Imagine all the people. Living for today. Though some Rent fans may recoiling from this reading, the alex AIDS pandemic led a lot of people to declaration of independence research paper question the existence of God.

As Larson watched so many of his friends killed by the disease, as he saw Christians reject and condemn the gay community, as he heard the Religious Right claim AIDS was God's just punishment on gays, what must that have done to his ideas about God and that is that essays, religion? Or did he ever have any? Or life is yours to of independence miss. Is that a call to reject notions of sin and divine punishment? After all, by definition, the act of a essay, repentance for sins is backward-looking. Declaration Research Paper! Why beat yourself up, why do your penance, when you could be moving forward, this lyric seems to ask us. No day but today. Could this mean that the only way to truth, to happiness, to enlightenment is to underwater alex report live fully in the reality of today, not in the mythologies of thousands of years ago, not in the spiritual bamboozles of new mythologies, but instead in the divinity of plain old human connection, love, sex, generosity, forgiveness, kindness, joy, music?

If there is declaration of independence research paper spirituality in Rent , it's in the obviously named Angel. She brings out breathing alex flinn report what is divine in Collins and declaration of independence paper, the others. The Assignment! She shows us the road, this road that we're on, the one in declaration of independence, front of us. If we embrace this road, this way, this day, we live more fully and we appreciate each other more deeply. The song goes on, and political theory, Mimi and the support group sing: I trust my soul. Mimi may be a heroin addict, but she's also something of a philosopher.

She has self-awareness, and perhaps that's her great tragedy. They're not saying they trust God here, or fate, or Allah; they trust their souls. They trust their human nature, their humanity, the deepest part of themselves. They don't strive to be sinless or righteous or morally upright, but just to be, just to live life, to keep moving forward, to play out their own individual hero myth stories, each on of independence research his own individual road. There's only now, There's only here. Or live in fear. There is no eternity, the lyric seems to argue; there's only now.

There is photosythesis no heaven, hell, or other plane of existence; there's only here. You can choose to live in love and joy and sunlight, or you can choose to live in fear and distrust and darkness. You can work to better the lives of your fellow humans, or you can live in fear of them and what they'll take from you. No day but today. It's pretty obvious why the support group is singing this as their affirmation. They have to find peace in living with AIDS. They have to declaration of independence paper live fully now, because they don't know how much future they've got. For Angel and Collins, that's freeing, and maybe it allows them to be themselves and accept themselves in google study, a way they might not have otherwise.

Maybe they wouldn't have connected so quickly, so powerfully, if not for the disease they share. And maybe the of independence same is true for Roger and Mimi. They're sickness is their bond. So why is Mimi singing this to Roger? Because Roger is raging against the first genuine emotions he's felt since his girlfriend died. He hasn't been able to give into love thus far, so he has live[d] in fear. It's terrifying for him to feel again, because to feel again means to be hurt again. But Mimi has been hurt too. She really does understand what he feels.

She knows that she can live in that pain or she can give into love, and she knows the same is true for Roger. Mimi the that is that true nature addict-philosopher urges Roger not to think about what might happen, who might get hurt, where it all might end, and instead just focusing on being with her here, now, for as long as they've got. Declaration Of Independence! They don't really have a choice, other than to retreat into themselves. There is no other path for them, no other way, and for many reasons, no day but today. More than anyone else, Rent is bentham essay jurisprudence political theory Roger's story.

It's true that there are essentially six leads in Rent , but most of them don't change significantly or learn anything significant. Research Paper! Roger and is that essays true nature, Mimi do, and of independence paper, Mark and Maureen do also, to a lesser degree. But Joanne and Collins have already gone through the growing-up process, and Angel is the story's wise wizard figure. Rent is Roger's hero myth. It's easy to get swept up in the joy and rowdiness of jurisprudence theory, this show, the rich musical landscape, the quirky characters, and to miss the paper skillful, carefully wrought character arc that Larson constructed for Roger. Rent went through massive rewrites over several years, and though roughness is to some extent Rent 's unique style, Larson did a lot of work on essays true nature the show and put a great deal of declaration research paper, time and thought into its construction. (In one early version, the photosythesis show began with the funeral and then flashed back. ) Once you look closely at Roger's arc, you can see how the whole show is declaration of independence paper built on that structure. Roger is in enormous pain when we first meet him. He's been through a terrible tragedy – his girlfriend April gave him AIDS, then killed herself, just six months ago – and is that essays about true nature, as many people do in horrific situations, he shuts down his feelings.

He becomes an emotional zombie. He looks like a person on the outside, but he's dead inside. He's learned to function, and how to fake a smile. But he has cut himself off from declaration of independence research paper, life. He hasn't seen anyone but Mark in a really long time.

And he's just six months clean from his own heroin addiction. You don't get cured of heroin addiction. Google! It's like alcoholism; it's with you for life. You just learn to paper control it. Maybe . From the first moments of the bentham essay show, we're introduced to Roger's magic amulet (like the declaration ruby slippers and bentham jurisprudence political theory, Luke's light saber), his Fender guitar. It's the only part of him not dead. It's the artist part of him that's hanging on. As long as he has the guitar, as long as his one great song isn't finished, he has a reason to get up tomorrow. Roger is unable to finish his song because he's emotionally crippled, but also because finishing his one great song would mean he could die. And deep down, that's not really what he wants.

He wants to live again. The action of of independence, Rent is how Roger makes his way back to the land of the google analysis living. It's about how Roger learns to be one of those people living with, living with, living with, living with, not dying from declaration of independence, disease. Angel and Collins provide the call to adventure that begins every hero myth. Angel is follow guidance below Roger's wise wizard, his Glinda the Good Witch. And his faithful companions on his journey are his community. More than any other modern piece of musical theatre, in declaration of independence, Rent , the community is a character – another way in which Larson followed the Rodgers Hammerstein model.

If Roger can just get out into bentham political theory the community, he will find again what was taken from him: real human connection. Our reluctant hero resists that call at declaration of independence paper, first, but then he gets a second call to adventure, this time a call to emotional ( okay, and that essays, sexual and chemical ) adventure, when Mimi barges into the loft. Roger resists again. He wants nothing to do with Mimi, because she's a junkie like April, and he will not go through that again. Of Independence! He must protect himself, his heart, his broken soul. Just as he protects himself from his addiction. After Mimi leaves, Roger realizes he likes her. But what does that mean to underwater flinn book an emotional zombie? Might it mean that he's not a zombie after all?

He finally answers Angel's call to adventure, inviting Mimi along. And only then, when he risks, when he opens himself to the adventure, does something of value come back to him. Connection. And notice that our hero brings his magic amulet with him everywhere, to the flea market, to Maureen's performance, to the Life Cafe. Roger and Mimi's duet I Should Tell You is the show's obligatory moment, the moments toward which everything before it has led, and from which everything after it results. Take out paper that moment and the whole story collapses. Google Case! Roger finally pries open the door to his heart, finally takes that brave step. and finds out Mimi also has AIDS. Just like April. Just like him.

Part of him is terrified that he's finally letting himself feel again, and paper, that it's going to essay be exactly like the last time. Nothing but pain. He knows it'll end the same way. He can't do that. He can't bear that kind of pain again. But another part of him thinks maybe at long last he's found someone who could understand what he feels, something even his best friend Mark can't provide. There's such weight, such deep despair, such understanding when Roger finds out of independence research Mimi has AIDS and how do you write a essay, all he can say is, Mimi. He can't believe it. Once again, he falls for someone who's a junkie and declaration of independence research, who has AIDS, and essay jurisprudence political, once again, he knows, she'll die, leaving him alone again. And he knows he won't survive that. And yet who could better understand what he's been going through?

The power of the scene is that Mimi knows exactly what he's thinking, and she can feel that weight, and she knows the source of his pain. And she knows they could ease each other's pain. If only. And then he chooses. (Here goes. ) The end of research paper, Act I of Rent feels a little like the end of Act II of Next to Normal – guardedly semi-optimistic. A fully happy ending isn't really possible here, so we'll take what we can get. How Do A Essay! Yes, there will be pain. As Next to declaration of independence paper Normal tells us, It's the price we pay to feel. And as the act ends, Roger and Mimi join the others in celebrating life at photosythesis, the Life Cafe.

Unlike most stories, a big part of Roger's hero's journey is skipped, as we race through most of the year in of independence research paper, Act II. We're left to fill in those blanks, assume a progression (and disintegration) of Roger and case analysis, Mimi's relationship, but Larson does a great job of connecting all the declaration of independence dots for us. Roger's real moment of follow the assignment, self-discovery comes in the double interior monologue he shares with Mark, What You Own in Act II, and in their fight leading up to of independence research paper it. Essay Jurisprudence Political Theory! In each hero myth, the hero has to gain some new wisdom from the trials he's been through and he must return to his village to share his new wisdom. But first he has to hit rock bottom. Everything that Roger needed is being taken away.

In the declaration song-scene Goodbye, Love, Roger and Mark have a real fight, and in pointing out each other's flaws and frauds, they each gain some self-awareness. It takes a fight for them to finally say all this, to finally open up. They sing: So I own not a notion. I escape and ape content. I don't own emotion – I rent.

What was it about how do you write, that night? Connection – in declaration, an isolating age. For once the shadows gave way to light, For once I didn't disengage. Dying in America. At the bentham jurisprudence end of the millennium. We're dying in America.

To come into our own. But when you're dying in of independence research, America. At the end of the millennium, You're not alone. Or as Sondheim would put it, No one is alone. Photosythesis! Mark and Roger are coming to of independence research paper realize that we all go through trials. We all suffer. We all grieve.

And we all know we're not alone. Notice the shift from living in below, America earlier in the song, to dying in America, and then to dying. to come into our own. It's the hero's progression from research, mere existence, to challenge and danger, to how do you write a essay finding your own place in the world. But Roger has not finished his journey. He has not yet become a man. If he doesn't own his emotion, how can he write a love song? When they bring Mimi up at the end of the show, Roger sees his past playing out in front him again.

It's all happening exactly as before. And then he makes a different choice . Instead of giving in to the grief, as he did with April, here he fights it. He rises up to slay the dragon. Roger's song – or more accurately, the genuine love that his song expresses – is the kiss the Prince gives the Disney Princess that saves her life. He hasn't been able to research write the song before now, because he wasn't yet capable of mature love. Breathing Alex! Now he is.

He's growing up. Now Roger is no longer passive. He has chosen to be active. He has chosen to declaration of independence act to save another. He has become heroic. in how do you write a essay, a small, urban, Alphabet-City, kind of way. Declaration Of Independence! He has grown up, and now he can love someone fully. But like Matt in google case, The Fantasticks , Roger first had to declaration of independence research paper get beat up by the world.

Larson's decision to you write a essay give Roger such a heavy backstory was one of his most important choices. The existence of April in declaration research paper, the story changes it, and elevates it well beyond both the maudlin, emotional pornography of the opera and the subversive but shallow comedy of the novel on which the musical and the opera are based. April gives Roger weight. In the opera, Rodolfo seeks romance; in the novel, Rudolphe seeks sex. Roger seeks connection. At the beginning of the show, Roger's song had to be written before he dies. It's connected with ending. At the end of the show, his new song has to photosythesis take be written to declaration of independence research paper express real love. Now it's connected to beginning. All through the show, as a running joke, Roger keeps trying to follow the assignment guidance write this song, but it always ends up sounding like Musetta's Waltz from declaration of independence, La Bohme . (How meta!) Now that Roger has grown up emotionally – or at least, is growing up – now he can integrate his obstacle into his journey, and now a quote from Musetta's Waltz shows up as an integrated instrumental break in the middle of his love song, Your Eyes.

Instead of being stymied by it, he has conquered it. Case Study! Instead of being trapped by declaration research paper the past, he now integrates the past into the present. Also notice that Roger's first big song, One Song Glory is all about Roger. He even refers to himself in the song, in is that about, the third person. This is a shallow sentiment.

He wants glory. He thinks he's capable of truth like a blazing fire. Not yet he isn't. But by declaration of independence research paper the end of the how do you write show, he's grown up and his last big song, Your Eyes, is all about Mimi. Research! It's about connection.

Ultimately, Roger learns what Bobby learns in Company – Alone is alone, not alive. Follow The Assignment Guidance! Like Bobby, Roger choose to make a commitment to someone, to put himself second. The finale of Company is called Being Alive because Bobby has chosen not to be alone. The goal isn't to find the perfect person. The goal isn't to get married. Declaration Of Independence Paper! The goal is to be alive. At the end of Rent , Roger choose to be alive. He takes all that he's learned on his journey and he chooses connection.

It's not a Happily Ever After, because in real life there's always a next chapter. until there isn't. But it is a resolution. The (Second) Age of Aquarius. Jonathan Larson was born and died under the sign of photosythesis, Aquarius, fitting for the man who wanted to write the Hair for of independence research paper, the 90s. Take! In fact, as much as Rent was influenced by other musicals, no show shaped Rent more than Hair . Research Paper! The two shows are alike in so many ways. Both originated off-Broadway and moved to Broadway. Both intentionally cast some actors who had no stage experience at all. You Write A Essay! Both used costumes that came from thrift stores and of independence paper, actors’ closets to add a sense of follow, realism. Neither show had much set. Both shows were a weird mix of concert and musical (like the subsequent off-Broadway sensation Hedwig and the Angry Inch ), with both scores relying to some degree on list songs (even sharing some of the same references – sodomy, marijuana, Ginsberg, Antonioni, and others).

Both shows acknowledge themselves as theatre, directly addressing the audience. In Rent , Mark actually speaks many of the declaration of independence research stage directions. In Hair , the actors interact with the audience. Both shows are about drugs (marijuana in Hair , heroin in Rent ), death (Vietnam in take, Hair , AIDS in Rent ), and a strong sense of declaration research, community as family. Both shows deal seriously with spirituality but reject traditional religious traditions. Both shows also rejected traditional Broadway staging techniques and both borrowed techniques from the experimental theatre movement, because both directors came from the experimental theatre community. In fact, the static, presentational staging of Seasons of Love in Rent was considered revolutionary by google case study analysis some but it’s taken directly from the staging of Let the Sun Shine In in Hair . Both shows were perceived to have plot problems (no plot in Hair , a messy plot in Rent ), and in fact, both shows were meant to feel messy and unpolished. The success and legacy of Rent owes almost as much to its original direction and design as it does to its music and lyrics. Director Michael Greif was criticized for his staging, which often looked random or even non-existent, but he was just picking up where Hair left off. Greif was creating a new kind of musical theatre staging, a theatrical equivalent to cinma vrit , the documentary style of filmmaking in paper, which no directorial control is evident, in which real life is merely recorded without being manipulated.

Now, obviously, it’s tough for a musical to be completely natural because most people don’t break into song spontaneously, and even fewer have a band to photosythesis back them up. But Greif got as close to cinma vrit as musical theatre can get, aiming for the impression that these actors are making it up as they go, that they’ve assembled on this nearly empty stage and are acting out their lives for us. There were no self-consciously clever staging moments, no technical surprises, no gimmicks (unless you call the lack of gimmicks a gimmick). In all these ways, it picked up the central ideas of Hair . It was different, it was startling, and it was scary to declaration of independence research paper musical theatre traditionalists. Greif has said that he staged Seasons of Love first and the assignment below, the sparse, static staging of declaration of independence, that number then determined the look of the rest of the show. Just as the authors of Hair , Jim Rado and Gerry Ragni, used their lives and the lives of their friends as material, Larson did the same with Rent . As mentioned earlier, many small details of his life found their way into the show, as did the breathing underwater book report names of friends lost to AIDS. And Roger and Mark are clearly two sides of of independence paper, Larson, both the artist-observer and the artist determined to leave behind something of value. Like Mark, Larson’s friends say he studied people intently, often asking couples why they were together, wanting to know friends’ life histories, asking sometimes very personal questions in his quest to understand people. A friend says that on the last night of his short life, Larson told him that he had learned from an bentham theory HIV-positive friend that it’s not how many years a person lives that counts; it’s how you fulfill the declaration of independence paper time you spend here, a philosophy Larson certainly shared with Roger. Larson also injected his hopelessly sunny disposition and google case study, impossible optimism into of independence Angel, the heart of Rent . Though Larson died, he lives on in these characters. Like Hair, Rent is about the things its creator thought were important.

It’s a show about survival, just like Jason Robert Brown’s musical Songs for a New World . Perhaps the message of this generation is that the real heroism is in living, in how do a essay, just making it from one day to the next, against of independence research paper, greater odds than a more generous universe would allow. Though many musicals have dealt with death, though some have even killed off their hero, never before has a Broadway musical included four main characters living with AIDS. And still, the show rarely focuses on death and rarely gets depressing. It’s uplifting even as it deals frankly with tragedy. In Angel’s death we still celebrate the joy he brought to Collins and jurisprudence political theory, the rest. Rent deals in spiritually even though it doesn’t mention God. Declaration Of Independence! The church of Rent is Life itself – the take Life Caf, Angel’s group Life Supports, the declaration research life teeming through the bentham essay political theory streets of New York City, the life force that rages through each character as they all struggle to survive. Mark’s song Halloween asks why this extended family of friends was brought together and research paper, the answer is that they are each other’s church, each other’s reason for celebration and for thanks.

Mark asks this question, significantly, standing outside a church, not within it. Mainstream religion does not offer this generation what it seeks. Like the generation of Hair thirty years earlier, their answers aren’t in the Bible; their answers are in the sense of family and community they all share. And like Hair , Rent is not just about a community of characters, it’s also about the how do a essay community of artists who created it. Paper! Just as each cast of Hair takes a tribal name and becomes a family in very real ways, so too does each cast of Rent form deep, lasting bonds. Analysis! It’s the declaration of independence nature of the material. The Legacy of Rent. Rent ’s legacy is tough to estimate just a few years after its opening. Google Study Analysis! Certainly, it will ruin the voices of a generation of singers.

Because the producers want actors who don’t feel like actors (as Larson wanted), many of of independence, them are untrained and don’t know how to follow the assignment guidance warm up their voices and bodies before a show, how to rest their voices on days off, how to prepare their bodies for a kind of abuse few people ever experience. Many actors who have performed in Rent have blown out their voices and developed serious vocal problems. This was less of a problem with Hair because no one actor had all that much music to sing, but in Rent several characters sing a great deal of music each night. In August 1997, the New York Times did an article on absenteeism in Rent and in of independence, Savion Glover’s Noise/Funk . Alex Flinn Book! At some performances of of independence research, Rent , as many as nine out of fifteen cast members would be missing. This had also been a problem with Hair , but due more to drugs than to bentham essay theory sore throats. But the real question is: will Rent change Broadway the way Larson hoped it would? So far it hasn’t.

Would it have been different if Larson had lived? Maybe. Who knows what his next show would have been like? Then again, maybe Larson’s other shows wouldn’t have made it to of independence research paper Broadway. Maybe they wouldn’t have been the near masterpiece that Rent was. The other young composers making their marks on follow Broadway are following more in the tradition of declaration research paper, Sondheim’s sophisticated, complex musicals than following Larson’s populist lead. Adam Guettel’s brilliant Floyd Collins clearly came out of the take Sondheim tradition. Declaration Of Independence Research! Jason Robert Brown’s Songs for a New World was heavily pop and RB-influenced, but Brown’s Parade was closer to Sondheim.

Frank Wildhorn’s musicals, Jekyll Hyde, The Scarlet Pimpernel , and others, came directly out of the Top 40 sound, but they don’t succeed as theatre, really amounting to nothing more than Star Search with a slight story, so he won’t be the heir to Larson’s legacy. Maybe the only hope resides in a new voice we haven’t heard yet, that will appear on how do a essay the scene as suddenly as Larson’s did, who will finish the declaration research work of putting musical theatre and pop music back together again, without sacrificing the integrity of either, the way Larson did so brilliantly and so lovingly.

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