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biography network The conference on celebrity couples taking place at the University of Southampton’s Avenue Campus [‘home’ of this website] on Saturday, 24 November, boasts an graphic organizer essay impressive line up of speakers and has an on energy auditing obvious attraction for all interested in biography. Compare Contrast Organizer! Further details of the conference can be secured from Dr Shelley Cobb, Lecturer in English in the Faculty of Humanities, and whose email address is: S.Cobb@soton.ac.uk. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Professor Melanie Nolan, director of the National Centre of Biography at the Australian National University in spike essay, Canberra, has kindly provided information on compare essay, the work of the NCB : The Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB) is Australia’s pre-eminent dictionary of national biography.It was established in 1959 in essay, the Research School of Social Sciences (RSSS) in 1959 and is a fine example of the organizer, ANU honouring its foundational role of thesis on gangs, undertaking projects of national importance. The ADB provides concise, informative and fascinating descriptions of the lives of over contrast organizer essay, 11,500 significant and can you essays on ipad representative persons in Australian history.

Managed and edited by staff at the National Centre of Biography (NCB), the ADB is the largest co-operative project in the humanities and social sciences ever undertaken in Australia. Over 4,500 authors, as well as an Editorial Board of eminent historians, and State, Commonwealth, Armed Services and Indigenous Working Parties have given their services, without payment, since the project started in 1959. Contrast Essay! The ADB is available both as a print publication and online: Australian Dictionary of Biography http://adb.anu.edu.au/. Spike Lee's Fever! We have just completed volume 18 which will be launched in December 2012. 2. Current Developments: The ADB was integrated into graphic essay, the National Centre of Biography (NCB) in 2008 and movie jungle the School of History in contrast graphic organizer essay, 2010. Editing new entries for the ADB remains the prime focus of the NCB but our long-term plan is also to thesis on gangs develop innovative biographical websites and to compare essay undertake E-research based on our data. In the past three years we have successfully applied for a Major Equipment Grant, which enabled us to spike lee's fever essay purchase a state-of-the-art Guardian AO scanner and establish a Digitisation Facility.

We have also appointed a computer programmer, a digitisation technician and anonline manager. In 2011 the NCB launched an Obituaries Australia website http://oa.anu.edu.au/ which aims to publish and comprehensively index every obituary published of Australians. 3500 names have already been added to this site. We anticipate the final figure will be in the hundreds of thousands. This year we launched Women Australia http://womenaustralia.anu.edu.au/ and contrast Labour Australia http://labouraustralia.anu.edu.au/ and are in the process of developing an fever Indigenous Australia site. These ‘tailored’ sites have been developed to promote biographical research in these often neglected areas. We have also developed a People Australia website http://peopleaustralia.anu.edu.au/ which searches all of the NCB’s sites and includes entries for those for whom there is little biographical information such aspeople who died in infancy and childhood. All of the websites use the same underlying software, developed by our computer programmer, and index terms, so that researchers can move effortlessly between sites. 3. Future developments: Network Analysis and eResearch Projects: After 50 years the ADB has indexed entries on 12,500 individuals. Nine million Australians died between 1788 and 1990.

It is only by building up acritical mass of data on individual Australians that E-research can be undertaken. As well as building up that data the NCB is compare contrast essay developing network analysis and E Research to analyse associations between Australians over time. Write Essays Mini! The National Centre of Biography runs a seminar programme, has established a Masters in Biographical Research and Writing and hosts ANU.Lives, a biography series of the ANU E Press. Professor of History. Director, National Centre of Biography.

General Editor, Australian Dictionary of Biography. Research School of Social Sciences. Australian National University. phone: 6125 2131. fax: (02) 6125 3644. Compare Contrast Graphic! As promised, highlights of the conference are now available here on the website. Regrettably, for thesis on gangs, technical and other reasons not all talks are available (e.g. Frederic Raphael’s trenchant conference launch), but the compare organizer, podcasts confirm the religion contest, quality of presentation and debate, as highlighted by Ray Monk’s post-conference blog (see below) To download the mp3, hit play, then right clicksave as on the download button. Stuart Profitt – A Publisher’s Point of compare graphic organizer, View Download accompanying transcript. Robert Fraser – Biography, Satire, and Remembrance. June Parvis – Writing a biography of First Wave feminist Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragette leader in Edwardian Britain. What differing stories do biographers tell?

Becky Conekin – Model Lives: The Challenge of Writing the History of Professional Fashion Modelling in London c. 1947 to 1967. Tim Waterstone – Whither the book? Andrew Hadfield – Edward Spencer and the Reconstruction of Early Modern Lives. Write Essays Mini! Paal Antonsen – Fictional Biographical Characters. Alex Danchev – Whither the Lives of the organizer essay, Artists? Jeremy Treglown – The Death of the essay, Life: Reports Exaggerated? Silke Roth – “It’s a small world” – Presenting Research on International Aid Workers. Helen Rappaport – The Search for compare graphic organizer, a Subject: Finding New Ways of Looking at Old Stories. Liz Baigent – The Geography of Biography: The Various Lives of Kate Marsden, Traveller to Siberia in the 1890s.

Jack Corbett – In Defence of Empathy: Leadership Narratives and papers on energy auditing the Methodological Practice of Collective Biography. Richard Holmes – Biography and Science. CFP : Turning Points in Biography : the collective, the event and compare contrast graphic organizer the return of the life in parts. Turning Points in research on energy auditing, Biography: the collective, the event and the return of the compare graphic organizer essay, life in parts. Jane Essay! 9-10 February 2013.

University of East Anglia. Organised under the contrast graphic, auspices of the University of thesis on gangs, East Anglia’s School of Literature, Drama and Creative Writing’s Biography and Creative Non-Fiction Programme. Keynote speakers TBA. They say the devil’s in the details. So what kind of life do we get when depth overshadows breadth?

In serious biography, more and compare graphic more, it means a partial life: a focus on what is called the ‘collective’ or group, and (in what is swiftly becoming the jungle fever, new trend) on a pivotal event or age. The conventional biographer must wonder: how do these shorter, closer cuts stand up to definitive, cradle-to-grave lives? What new challenges do they present, and what old ones do they overcome? Are certain subjects better served by organizer essay, it? How is the structure already evolving? Biographers such as Richard Holmes, Charles Nicholl, Helen Rappaport and Frances Wilson have chosen a pivotal event, a series of events, or the relationships within a group to create closer and perhaps even truer portraits of their subjects than ever before. This two-day international and interdisciplinary conference invites papers from postgraduates, academics and practicing biographers that explore this recent innovation in life writing by addressing such questions as: Is there still a place for the definitive life?

What new obstacles does the event-based narrative put before us? Is it necessarily problematic that this approach distorts the life? How do we find a sense of wholeness in parts? How do we assess rigor of scholarship in this context? How does an event-driven narrative answer the thesis on gangs, weaknesses in the conventional cradle-to-grave structure? What subjects are most suited to compare contrast this structure? Topics may include but are not confined to papers on biographical works in progress, critical readings or theoretical approaches.

Please send abstracts of 250 words for 20 minute papers with your name, email address and university affiliation to Kathryn Holeywell and Blake Darlin at UEABiographyConference@gmail.com. Deadline: 1 November 2012. Conference podcast soon, and jonathan Steninberg article in Times Higher Education. Colleagues on vacation mean that the thesis on gangs, recordings of the proceedings at the ‘Can Biography Survive?’ conference have yet to be converted into podcasts, but this is a priority. Compare Organizer! The Times Higher Education, 19 July 2012, carries a feature article – ‘Cult of Personalities’ by Jonathan Steinberg, to coincide with the paperback publication of his acclaimed biography of Bismarck. The article, in which the author offers a spirited defence of biography, seeks to explain why the genre has re-established its intellectual credentials (‘…because the thesis on gangs, social science models ignored the power of compare graphic, human personality’). Steinberg rightly signals that biographers have to pose the same questions as the on energy auditing, ‘academic historian’, and must provide the same evidence-based answers; and he draws on his own and compare contrast graphic other political biographies to thesis support his argument. He suggests that if a biography fails then it does so in a manner that is familiar to compare graphic organizer essay the discipline of history as a whole; but, when successfu,l then the manner of a biography’s achievement is unique, by ‘showing us what extraordinary human beings have done and what they were like.’ This is an entertaining and informative 1500 or so words, and it’s worth checking out the Higher‘s website.

Can Biography Survive? Southampton, 3-4 July 2012. Conference Report. Two years in research papers, the planning, this was a major event, involving many of the contrast organizer, leading figures, not only in biography, but also in the publishing and book-selling world. Indeed, it was the perfect fulfillment of the network’s aim to jane essay bring people together from as wide a range as possible. Among the compare graphic organizer essay, speakers were academics from departments of English, History, Politics, Sociology, Geography and Philosophy.

There were also some of the freelance biographers whose works has done most to shape the genre over the last few decades, as well as some of the agents, publishers and booksellers who have been at jane essay the forefront of the book industry’s attempts to contrast organizer come to terms with the deep and rapid economic and thesis on gangs technological changes which have presented such formidable challenges in recent years. The papers and discussion sessions fell roughly into three groups. First, there were those that presented reflections on the genre from various academic perspectives. The historian Stephen Brooke, for example, drew attention to the importance of treating a person’s life, not as a simple narrative, but rather as, in Walt Whitman’s famous phrase, ‘containing multitudes’. Robert Fraser, a professor of English, looked at biography from a literary point of organizer, view, discussing its characteristic styles and jane essay tropes. Meanwhile, the philosopher Paal Antonsen raised questions about the supposed exclusiveness of biography from other disciplines and concluded that, actually, it should really be seen, not as an organizer essay independent genre, but rather simply part of history. Starting from the opposite assumption – that biography is a genre in its own right – Jeremy Treglown, a professor of English at Warwick, argued that reports of its demise were, as those of Mark Twain’s had been, ‘greatly exaggerated’. Others discussed the challenges and prospects of particular types of biography. The sociologist Silke Roth gave a summary of her work on international aid workers, while Becky Conekin’s paper discussed another relatively specialised area of concern: the lives of fashion models during the forties, fifties and sixties. Much less specific was Alex Danchev’s impassioned discussion of the can you essays on ipad mini, lives of artists, a sub-drama whose importance Professor Danchev urged with great passion and conviction. The methodological problems of writing collective biographies were analysed by Jack Corbett from the Australian National University, while the issues raised by the opposite situation – a collection of biographies of contrast, a single individual – were discussed by June Purvis in her presentation of the various lives of the can you write essays, suffragette leader Emmeline Pankhurst and also by the geographer Liz Baigent, who considered the various lives that have been written of the explorer Kate Marsden.

Andrew Hadfield, professor of English at the University of Sussex, talked very entertainingly and enlighteningly about his recent experience of turning the few scanty documentary records of Edmund Spenser’s life that exist into contrast essay, a 600 page scholarly biography. Though she has taught at Oxford, Manchester and jane essay Columbia, Claire Harman would more naturally be thought of as a literary biographer than as an academic, having written prize-winning biographies of Sylvia Townsend Warner, Fanny Burney and Robert Louis Stevenson. Her talk, ‘Looking Back and compare essay Looking Forward’ focused on jane essay, the ways in which various biographies have approached the task of revising their work and compare graphic organizer essay how new technology – in particular, the e-book – offers an opportunity to jane essay approach this task in compare contrast graphic organizer essay, a completely new way. It was a fascinatingly fresh look at an old theme. Among the other freelance writers in attendance was the eminent man of letters, Frederic Raphael, who, among his many other distinctions, can count winning an Oscar. He has recently finished a biography of the Romano-Jewish historian, Josephus, and talked with great wit and mit sdm thesis elegance about the importance of the compare graphic, imagination for papers, the biographer. On the morning of the second day, the freelance historian, writer and compare graphic biographer Helen Rappaport gave an extraordinarily stimulating discussion, based on her own experience as a practitioner of the genre, about how biography might be rejuvenated by on ipad, a more imaginative approach, not just with regard to contrast graphic essay writing but also with regard to thesis on gangs choosing a subject. Compare Graphic Organizer! Why, she asked, should the subject of a biography be the whole life of a person.

Why not a few years or even just a moment? In a masterly and captivating presentation, Richard Holmes – regarded by many as the greatest living biographer writing in English – provided another fresh perspective when he described why he, known to jane essay everyone as a literary biographer, had now turned his attention to science and scientists. There were, he suggested, signs that we are currently going through a golden period of scientific biography, even during this period of economic and technological change and uncertainty. Which brings me to the third and final group of presenters: those in the business. First up was Stuart Proffitt, who, as Publishing Director of compare contrast essay, Penguin, is in an excellent position to know which way the winds are blowing through the thesis, publishing industry. Supporting his argument with some useful statistics, he gave a sobering analysis (but one not entirely without hope) of the compare organizer essay, state of best, both the bookselling business as a whole and the biography market in particular. Compare Essay! The gist of Stuart’s analysis was confirmed by the bookseller Tim Waterstone, who told us that the book market in the UK grew year on year by about 3% between 1947 and 2004, when it reached a peak of thesis on gangs, ?5.8 bn. Since 2007 the market has declined by 21%, and in the near future, Tim thinks, it will be down to graphic essay about ?3 bn, a third of thesis, which would be accounted for by e-books.

The market for good old fashioned, “physical” books (those made of paper rather than electrons), then, will soon be less than half of what it was a few years ago. The implications of this were thrashed out in compare contrast organizer, the lively and fascinating panel discussion that followed Tim’s talk. On the religion essay, panel were two agents (David Godwin and Gill Coleridge), a publisher (Dan Franklin of essay, Jonathan Cape) and mit sdm a literary editor (Miriam Gross, who used to edit the compare contrast organizer, book pages of the jane essay, Sunday Telegraph and has been at the centre of graphic, Britain’s literary world for the last four decades). For many people, this panel discussion was the highlight of the conference, not only because of the spirited ways in which the panelists argued for their widely different reactions to thesis on gangs the economic situation (Dan Franklin was inclined to be gloomy, David Godwin resolutely upbeat), but also because of the very pertinent interventions made by organizer, members of the audience. It was at mit sdm this session that the hopes of the conference organisers received their most direct fulfillment, with authors having the chance to contrast organizer essay present their concerns to publishers, and research papers on energy auditing academics having the opportunity to hear at first-hand how the current state of the market for biographies is affecting those who make their living from writing them. For many, this bringing together of contrast organizer essay, very different kinds of people affected by the challenges to thesis on gangs biography presented by today’s world was the real value of the event.

One impressed academic wrote to me afterwards: ‘I didn’t comprehend in advance that all those luminaries from UK publishing and book trade would attend and participate’, while an agent told me it had been ‘a fascinating glimpse into academic life’. Richard Holmes described it as ‘a very well-organized and exceptionally multifaceted Conference, bubbling with ideas’, while June Purvis, I think, spoke for many, when she wrote ‘it would be a pity for compare contrast essay, the AHRC funded Biography Network to dwindle away. Is it possible to keep it going. ‘ This last is a question to which we are now putting our minds and on which we would love to hear the views of everyone who has taken part in any of jane essay, our events. Call for graphic organizer, papers, international FRAMING LIVES 2012 conference, Australia (closes 15 Nov) The 8th Biennial Conference of the International Auto/Biography Association. 17-20 July 2012, Canberra, Australia. Deadline for papers on energy auditing, paper and compare organizer panel proposals: 15 November 2011. Notification of spike movie, acceptance: 15 December 2011. Conference website: http://www.iaba2012.com. The Humanities Research Centre and National Centre of compare contrast, Biography at the Australian National University, in partnership with the essays, National Portrait Gallery, present Framing Lives, the 8th Biennial Conference of the International Auto/Biography Association. The field of auto/biography and life narrative studies is dynamic and contrast interdisciplinary.

Founded in 1999, the International Auto/Biography Association (IABA) is the leading international forum for scholars, critics and practitioners. The Framing Lives conference will feature distinguished international speakers and events at the National Portrait Gallery and other national collecting institutions. Framing Lives draws attention to can you write the extraordinary turn to the visual in contemporary life narrative: to graphics and animations, photographs and graphic essay portraits, installations and thesis on gangs performances, avatars and characters, that come alive on screens, stages, pages, and canvas, through digital and analogue technologies. At the compare, same time, framing suggests the jane essay, ways that lives are lived, recorded and viewed through multiple frames including those of language, politics, place, gender, history and culture. It draws attention to the multiple ‘I’s of auto/biographical representations now, and the various fields of vision, lines of sight, and points of focus for contrast, critics, artists, writers, historians and research auditing curators in the life worlds of auto/biography.

Conference themes include depiction and display, ethics and rights, living archives, place and displacement, media and celebrity, digital identity and social media, and creative life narrative. Paul Arthur (Deputy Director, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University) Rosanne Kennedy (Associate Professor and Head of Discipline, Gender Sexuality Culture, Australian National University) Gillian Whitlock (ARC Professorial Fellow, School of English, Media Studies Art History, University of Queensland) We welcome paper and panel proposals that connect with the conference themes as well as wider aspects of contrast graphic organizer, biography, autobiography and life narrative in the 21st century. For individual papers, please submit a one-page proposal including full name, title, institutional affiliation (if applicable), email address, postal address, abstract (max 300 words) and bio (max 200 words) by email to papers@theiaba.org. For panel proposals, please submit a short panel description (max 200 words) along with individual paper proposals for each presenter by email to papers@theiaba.org. Contact: Leena Messina, Programs Manager, Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University. Phone: (+612) 6125 4357. Framing Lives conference website: http://www.iaba2012.com.

International Auto/Biography Association: http://www.theiaba.org. Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University: http://hrc.anu.edu.au. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University: http://ncb.anu.edu.au. National Portrait Gallery, Canberra, Australia: http://www.portrait.gov.au. We are particularly interested in paper proposals that address the following themes but also encourage submissions that deal with wider aspects of the practice and theory of auto/biography and thesis on gangs life narrative: 1. Depiction and display. –Histories and analyses of compare contrast essay, visual representations of lives. –Lives as art, including portraiture, sculpture, photography, film and new media. –The life of objects and things in storytelling. –Curating online collections. –Adaptation and remediation. –Eavesdropping and voyeurism. –Framing, filtering, capturing, exposing, colouring lives. –Digitisation, simulation, authenticity. 2. Religion Contest! Ethics and rights. –Human rights, privacy, advocacy, law.

–Rights of biographical subjects. –Trauma, grief and organizer testimony. –Editing and ethics. –Disability, illness, therapy and recovery in life narrative. –Gender and sexuality. –Secrets and lies. 3. Living archives. –The archive within: genetics, genomics, neurology, emotions. –Archival legacies: remembering and forgetting. –Managing archival material: methodologies, policies, selection, metadata. –Oral history theory and practice. –Life story consent, copyright, constraints. 4. Jane Essay! Place and displacement. –Translating ‘life’ and lives across cultures and languages. –Minoritarian life narrative. Contrast Graphic Organizer Essay! 5. Media and celebrity. –Press, radio, television, film and music biographies. –The media as biographer. –The changing nature of fame. –Collective memory and biography. –Refashioning identity: bodies in the media. Thesis On Gangs! –Confessional modes in organizer, public life. 6. Can You Essays On Ipad Mini! Digital identity and compare contrast graphic organizer essay social media. –Social media audiences. –Digital relationships, communities, intimacy. –Epistolarity before and thesis on gangs after email. –Avatars, animation, machinima. –Pocket lives: iPhone, iPad, Android, apps. 7. Creative life narrative. –New hybrid forms of life narrative. –Approaches to constructing the autobiographical self. –Memoirs, journals, diaries, reflections. –Scholarship versus creative practice.

International Conference: Can biography survive? Start : July 3, 2012 Venue : University of Southampton. Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer Essay! The conference is currently being planned, and suggestions – including offers of papers – are welcome. Further details are to follow. Biography and the Morality of Style: Prof. Robert Fraser, Open University inaugural. BIOGRAPHY AND THE MORALITY OF STYLE. Professor Robert Fraser. Inaugural lecture, Open University, Tuesday 10 January 2011. Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Dean, Ladies and Gentlemen, My theme is biography, its rewards and its pains, its inconveniences and its opportunities, and its place within a university.

To the last of these questions I will turn presently, but I would like to start by spike movie essay, peering inside an institution of another kind: into Brixton Jail, along the corridors of which, one afternoon in August 1918, a nasal clatter was heard to echo. The sound was a prisoner guffawing at – or rather with – a recently published book. His hilarity did not go down too well. According to his own account, “the officer came round to my cell, saying I must remember that prison is a place of graphic organizer, punishment.” Since the detainee’s name was Bertrand Russell, you could say he enjoyed the last laugh, both with the book and at the expense of the social, political and moral system that had confined him in mini, so inappropriate a setting for several months, simply for contrast organizer, opposing the First World War. Arguably indeed there was a connection between these sources of religion, laughter and the war itself, since the text that had caused Russell such mirth had implicitly been aimed at graphic essay the set of values that had incited the conflagration in lee's movie jungle, the first place. The book, an experiment in group biography, was Eminent Victorians, and graphic organizer its author Russell’s friend Lytton Strachey. It enjoyed immediate success, sending ripples throughout the movie essay, world of English letters and beyond. Strachey’s former university teacher, the historian G.M Trevelyan, read it whilst traversing the North of Italy in a train. He promptly wrote to his former pupil, of whom secretly he had always somewhat disapproved, to congratulate him, adding the barbed comment that his erstwhile charge had now “found a method of writing about history which suits you admirably.” Biography would never to be quite the same again.

The success was not entirely expected. Strachey was a lazy scholar though he could write a flashy essay, as during his student years Trevelyan had never ceased to remind him. Indeed, his achievement was less one of substance than of compare graphic organizer, his salty and irreverent style. What he had done was to select four worthies of the last but one reign – Cardinal Manning, Arnold of Rugby, Florence Nightingale and General Gordon – and to religion essay write a sketch of each that turned their established reputation on its head. In his concluding chapter he portrays Gordon, desperate, self-important and compare graphic stranded in Khartoum. There were plenty of British sources Strachey could have cited in thesis on gangs, support of this beleaguered veteran.

Instead he quotes Rimbaud: “It’s just typical of those English with their preposterous politics, messing with trade on all sides…Their Gordon is an idiot, their General Wolseley an ass, and all their doings one long catalogue of absurdity and ruin.” Little wonder that the iconoclastic Russell enjoyed the expose so much, or that he and his contemporaries came to compare contrast graphic organizer essay regard as a form of emancipation the entry into British biography of a tone and style in stark contrast to the marmoreal tones of thesis on gangs, Lives and contrast essay Letters, often compiled by a doting friend or bereaved spouse, that had characterised the biographical literature of the thesis on gangs, previous century. Organizer Essay! Many modern British biographers, not least Strachey’s own biographer Michael Holroyd, look back to that moment of research on energy auditing, liberation as the foundation of their craft. One thought this has suggested to me is graphic that there exists in spike lee's jungle fever, all biography a stylistic battle between twin impulses: the need to celebrate lives, and the need to question, assess, mock, even to chide. In the past this contest has been waged across entire periods and literary movements, and through the pages of whole texts. For any individual biography nowadays, it is most likely to manifest itself in an unrelenting choice between sentence forms, phrases, even individual words. Some are born biographers, some achieve biography, and some have biographising thrust upon them. Personally I was thrust. At the outset, therefore, it seemed proper to seek professional advice from one of the born breed.

At a summer party in London I cornered that well-tried, satirically-inclined, hand at the game: the late Humphrey Carpenter, biographer of W.H. Auden, Benjamin Britten, Ezra Pound and the Goons. “Ah biography,” he drawled, swaying back on his heels and compare organizer essay shedding dandruff as he went: “It’s a disreputable business – and I do love it so!” At that moment I recalled reading somewhere that Carpenter traced his personal vocation to his astonished discovery in early infancy of the bottom drawer in which his mother kept her undergarments. Jane Essay! This was the compare contrast graphic organizer essay, sort of disclosure that Carpenter was wont to make, with such lofty, episcopal charm one almost failed to notice its perversity. The charm could be misleading, as one naive incumbent of the See of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, discovered to jane essay his dismay after commissioning from this mischievous broadcaster and jazzman an account of his life and ministry, in the innocent belief that Carpenter would treat their recorded conversations with discretion. When the book appeared, with its excoriations of its subject’s confusions of act and organizer essay purpose, the shamed prelate was obliged to append a note reading “I have tried hard to die before this book was published”.

Runcie is far from alone. It is remarkable just how many interviewees are wont to sidle up to can you write essays on ipad your microphone under the mistaken impression that you will ignore their revelations if they speak into it quietly. After which, the graphic essay, biographer finds himself carefully transcribing a series of passages starting with the whispered words “To speak quite confidentially…” Certainly Carpenter was a craftsman, as carpenters do tend to be. The question, to write on ipad mini my mind, is compare contrast graphic essay whether the acerbic note adopted by research papers auditing, him and other twentieth -century biographers was as modern as they liked to suppose. A cursory survey of the history of biography, one of the oldest of literary genres, suggests quite otherwise. Here, in the second century AD, is the Roman biographer Suetonius describing the compare organizer essay, behaviour in Capri of the Emperor Tiberius, officially revered as a god: He made himself a private sporting house, where sexual extravagances were practised for thesis on gangs, his secret pleasure…A number of compare organizer essay, small rooms were furnished with the most indecent pictures and statuary obtainable, also erotic manuals from Elephantis in Egypt; the inmates of the establishment would know from these exactly what was expected of them. Best! So that the place was openly and generally called ‘The Temple of the Goat’. Reading which, I am reminded of graphic organizer, a conversation overheard many years ago between two gowned masters at my ancient Grammar School.

We were standing in the Senior Library at the time, and one inquired of the other “Do we possess any pornography in this library?” “Indeed, yes,” replied his eager colleague. “We call it the Classics Section.” Biography, I noted with curiosity, was shelved in an adjacent stack. One proposition suggested by these episodes is that, though there exists as yet no settled canon of biography, its evolution over time has been far more continuous than most people realize. They furthermore suggest that biographical writing has always been a divided limb of a much heftier tree. To understand Suetonius aright, one needs to appreciate the long satirical tradition in ancient literature: Juvenal, Plautus and, before them, Aristophanes. To place Strachey and religion contest Carpenter in appropriate perspective, one has to organizer essay take into account an equivalent English tradition stretching from the comedies of Ben Jonson through the cartoons of Hogarth to Private Eye. The countervailing idealising tradition represented by those Victorian Lives and Letters enjoys a pedigree almost as long, emerging from medieval hagiography and entering the English mainstream with the four exemplary priestly lives – two of them poets – by Izaak Walton, better known as the author of thesis, The Complete Angler.

Parallel with this runs a tradition in painted portraiture stemming from church iconography, and proceeding in the secular sphere through Holbein the Younger, Van Dyke, Reynolds, Gainsborough, and on to the society artists or photographers of the Victorian age. But, whether celebratory or caustic, all of these writers and artists have been self-conscious stylists, and all have been implicit moralists, attributes so intimately connected one could almost identify in each an evolving quality called the organizer, Morality of religion contest, Style. Compare Organizer Essay! “We are perpetually moralists;” Doctor Johnson wrote in his Life of Milton, “but we are geometricians only by chance.” As morality has changed, style has changed along with it. It is remarkable just how many classics of the biographical genre have begun with a dissertation on precisely this conjunction. Johnson’s Lives of the spike movie jungle, Poets, an inviting model for compare contrast, someone intending to write the lives of more recent poets, started out as a set of Prefaces to volumes by religion contest, Congreve, Gray and compare graphic organizer essay fifty others, but amounted in time to a defence of what came to be known as the Augustan style, with Pope as its supreme exemplar. One of the best known is the Life of Abraham Cowley, and while almost everybody has forgotten the details of the life described, every scholar of English literature is familiar with the castigation of the so-called Metaphysical style with which it begins, a manner Johnson believed to lee's fever essay be over-refined and sophistical. So influential did this stylistic manifesto prove with poets, biographers and critics, that it was well over a hundred years before anyone could write verse influenced by contrast graphic essay, the Metaphysical school, or seriously attempt, say, a balanced Life of John Donne. When, and mit sdm best where, did my personal fascination with the biographical form begin? Of one matter I am quite certain: it has always gone along with an awareness of style.

I invite you to contemplate my eleven-year-old self standing with others in contrast graphic essay, the north aisle of best, a Norman cathedral, and intoning a happy song which, Mr Dean, I think you may recognize: O God the compare contrast essay, Father of Heaven: have mercy upon us miserable sinners. Oh God the Son Redeemer of the world: have mercy upon us miserable sinners. Oh God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the Father and the son: have mercy upon us miserable sinners. The words, the oldest in essays on ipad mini, the Prayer Book, were from Thomas Cranmer’s ‘Litany’, and graphic the setting was by Thomas Tallis. But as we turned to set off up the mit sdm best thesis, longest nave in England, my eyes drifted down to my scuffed black leather shoes, beneath which I had made out compare contrast graphic organizer essay, another text carved in bold characters that read: In Memory of/JANE AUSTEN,/ youngest daughter of the late/ Revd GEORGE AUSTEN,/ Formerly rector of Steventon in this County/ she departed this life on mit sdm best, the 18th July 1817,/ aged 41, after a long illness supported with the patience and the hopes of a Christian./ The benevolence of her heart,/The sweetness of her temper, and/The extraordinary endowments of her mind/obtained the regard of compare graphic, all who knew her and/the warmest love of her intimate connections./Their grief is in proportion to their affection/ they know their loss to best thesis be irreparable,/but in their deepest affliction they are consoled/ by a firm though humble hope that her charity,/ devotion, faith and contrast organizer purity have rendered/ her soul acceptable in the sight of her/REDEEMER. I cherish that memory and that stylistic coincidence: it is not everyone who has sung Thomas Tallis whilst standing on can you essays on ipad mini, Jane Austen.

The verbal affinity between that inscription and the Litany was not lost, even on a child. It was as if Cranmer’s penitential words had seeped into the marble. The author of the pious epitaph was Jane’s brother Henry, a failed soldier then banker who had been ordained priest in middle age. The following year he became Jane’s first biographer. Contrast Graphic Organizer! The inscription in the cathedral floor, literally marmoreal, was in a sense a draft for the celebratory memoir he then prefaced to thesis on gangs the joint first edition of Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, where his tone is graphic as untouched as it is can you essays on ipad in on the tomb by any hint of his sister’s sublime scepticism.

Some afternoons we used to file past a pink-coloured Regency residence round the corner from the close. Graphic! On its facade was a plaque which announced “In this house Jane Austen died”, while in the latticed window to the left of the entrance one could make out a tetchy hand-written note that insisted “This is papers on energy a private house. It is not a museum.” The warning was intended, so it seemed, to discourage intrepid biographers tempted to wander in off the street in the belief that they might detect the causes of Jane’s early demise by inspecting the bed. It is the sort of compare organizer, non-sequitur to which biographers are prone. As for religion essay, the attitude struck by that written note, it is compare contrast organizer oddly similar to that espoused by the Austen family for a century after Jane’s death.

For them, Jane Austen was a private house, and jane essay they were resolved to defend the door. In 1869, by contrast essay, which time we are well into the period of the Life and Letters tradition against which Strachey was to react, Jane’s nephew, the Revd. James Austen-Leigh, published a longer Memoir, expanded three years later into a fully-blown Life and Letters. Instructively this too begins with a dissertation on style, or rather on the domestic habits of the Regency period compared with his own day. Mit Sdm! The previous generation, he tells us, were barbarians: they lived beneath exposed beams; they dined at five-thirty, and stabbed at their peas with knives.

The effect is to distance his aunt, whilst continuing to lay claim to her. Austen-Leigh wishes us to know he himself has moved with the times: he was, after all, the Vicar of Bray. But on one question he is adamant: his aunt had been unyielding in her fidelity to her own style of morality, and her own morality of style. In this resolve, he tells us, she defied even the compare graphic essay, Prince Regent’s librarian who had urged her to attempt a celebratory history of the House of Saxe Cobourg. “No,” she had replied, “I must keep to my own style and research on energy auditing go on compare contrast organizer, in my own way.” Few biographical subjects illustrate as vividly as does Austen the embroiling of the biographical art with family politics, with conceptions of thesis on gangs, ownership, of what would later come to be called intellectual property. Compare! When, in the twentieth century, she was slowly released from the grasp of her family, a succession of professional biographers stepped in to observe that sprightly and irreverent woman as she moved and essay mocked beneath the grave stone. Compare Graphic Organizer! The effort involved a drastic stylistic re-orientation, aspects of which may be suggested by a further pairing of texts, moments of spike lee's movie essay, mental vertigo viewed from within. Compare Contrast! The first runs: Never had she felt so agitated, at religion essay any circumstance in her whole life.

She was most forcibly struck. Compare Graphic! The truth of his representation there was no denying. She felt it at her heart. How could she have been so brutal, so cruel to Mrs Bates? – How could she have exposed herself to the ill opinion of everyone she valued! And how suffer him to leave her without saying one word of religion essay, gratitude, of concurrence, of common kindness!

The second is phrased with a similar cadence: She is doing what she has to do, making the best of a situation over which she has no control, watching the breakup of everything familiar and seeing what was left eagerly taken over; fitting in with plans over graphic, which she has no say, losing what she loves for the prospect of an urban life in a house not yet found; no centre, no peace, and the loss of an infinite number of things hard to list, impossible to explain. The first of spike fever, these streams of consciousness represents the wounded feelings of Emma after being reproved by Mr Knightly for her crassly insensitive behaviour at Box Hill. The second describes her creator’s mortified reactions in 1799 on learning that, consequent on her father’s retirement to fashionable Bath, she is to see the compare contrast, family furniture and her piano sold. Can You Essays Mini! The first of contrast graphic organizer, these representations of essay contest, inner disquiet, dating from 1816, is by Austen herself; the second, dating from 1997, is by her biographer Claire Tomalin. That the girl in the novel is fictitious, whilst the girl in the biography is real, is contrast graphic organizer – stylistically speaking- of less account than the palpable fact that both of these young women are imagined, and their sensations offered up to thesis on gangs the reader’s imagination in much the same kind of way, as Tomalin imitates Austen’s tumbling syntax, even hinting at her written punctuation – dashes standing in for contrast graphic organizer, commas: “No centre, no peace, and the loss of an infinite number of on ipad mini, things, hard to list, impossible to explain”. Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer Essay! The comparison raises further questions. Austen, writing of an imagined near-present, employs the past tense. Tomalin, writing of the past, writes in the present tense, because her evidence is culled from letters she has recently consulted.

The dilemma of tense is just one of the practical question with which biographers wrestle day by day. Literary biography is a hybrid between narrative, conventionally conveyed in the past tense, and criticism, which is usually conducted in the present. Guided by research, some inner stylistic compass, a biographer must constantly navigate between these two. More recently Tomalin has achieved an equivalent feat with a life of Charles Dickens that begins with a Dickensian set piece, an inquest, and features a disappearing child. And, twenty-two years ago, Peter Ackroyd wrote a life of the same author imitating Dickens in length, style and tone, and featuring pastiches of his river scapes and death bed scenes, even going so far as to script in dialogues between the contrast organizer essay, biographer and can you on ipad his subject. Identification has seldom gone further than this, some even accusing Ackroyd of writing an compare contrast graphic essay autobiographical novel and entitling it Dickens: A Biography. But Ackroyd is both a novelist and a biographer, who writes novels in the morning and jane essay biographies in the afternoon, while insisting that little generic shift occurs over lunch. Indeed, the theory that biographies operate like novels has of late been gaining ground so fast that it threatens to become a commonplace, of compare essay, biography and thesis on gangs of criticism. It is not merely Ackroyd who has succumbed to the temptation to throw off his biographical mask and reveal the novelist within.

In A Book of Secrets of 2010, Holroyd recounts with fresh emphasis the compare graphic organizer, well-known love affair between the thesis on gangs, novelists Vita Sackville-West and compare contrast organizer Violet Treyfusus. He ends one chapter with the lovers in Amiens confronted by their respective husbands, who have arrived in jane essay, hot pursuit. Compare Contrast Organizer Essay! “Even a sensationalist novelist”, he then remarks in a knowing aside to the reader, “would end the story here…” Alas, the research on energy, theory that, in literary biography, your subject provides a fitting model for your own style is contrast organizer far too straightforward. For a start it only jane essay really works with fiction, and certain kinds of fiction at that. A biography of James Joyce couched in compare contrast organizer, the style of Finnegan’s Wake seems an intriguing prospect, though liable to perplex those turning to it for best, information. With drama, the equation hardly works at all.

Imagine a biography of Harold Pinter written out in Pinteresque dialogue: First Lodger: He was conceived. Second Lodger: Conceived? Where was he conceived? First Lodger: In Hackney, I believe. Second Lodger: In the carriage or in the borough?, etc… A biography of Samuel Beckett in the style of Krapp’s Last Tape would incline to unnecessary repetition; if set out like Endgame, it would end before it began. Compare Contrast! With poets the case is an interesting one, and has much concerned me. There have been instances in can you write, which a biographer who is also a poet has discovered in his chosen subject a model for contrast, his own style, both poetic and biographical.

I have already mentioned Johnson on Pope, but nobody could read Andrew Motion’s Philip Larkin: A Writer’s Life of 1993 without being conscious just how much Motion owes to his subject for colloquial lucidity of research papers, exposition. And last year Matthew Hollis published an account of Edward Thomas’s final months, All Roads Lead to France, which finds in graphic, its subject’s revelatory moments an impulse for its own revealing plainness. But Larkin and Thomas were both declarative poets of everyday experience, and both were prose writers who, like Wordsworth, insisted that poetry should possess the jane essay, strengths of well written prose. The more rhetorical the contrast graphic, poet, the can you, more challenging the approach. The life of W.B. Compare Organizer Essay! Yeats has been recounted by Richard Ellman, twice by Derry Jeffares, and at greater length by Roy Foster.

Yet none has begun by inquiring “What rough beast, its hour come round at last, slouches towards Sandymount to be born?” A biographer who aspired to religion essay contest write like Yeats, even Yeats the graphic essay, essayist, would risk bathos every inch of the way. Jungle! He would not be raised up by his subject, but be dwarfed by him. I well remember the essay, moment when the stylistic crux involved in writing a poet’s life first occurred to me, and I recall it as a feeling of constriction across the chest. My first subject was T.S. Eliot’s protege the poet George Baker, who in his time had been, among many other things, an enthusiastic fornicator. Like many such, he had been obsessed with his mother. Realising which, I thought that I should begin by describing her. But there was an obstacle in the way in the shape of a poem, Barker’s most moving, and spike lee's jungle arguably one of the compare contrast organizer essay, great sonnets of the twentieth century, “To my mother” begins: So near, most dear, most loved and most far, Under the window where I often found her. Sitting as huge as Asia, seismic with laughter, Gin and chicken helpless in her Irish hand, Irresistible as Rabelais, but most tender for. The lame dogs and hurt birds that surround her, She is a procession no one can follow after.

But be like a little dog following a brass band. How, I asked myself, could I possibly follow that? Barker was evidently much attached to his Catholic, Irish mother. Was it my job to endorse that feeling, to intensify it, somehow to prop it up? These might have been possibilities with a weaker poem but, with this one, any attempt at evocation would seem feeble by comparison. Religion! Mine were humbler tasks: to contextualise, to point out that the poem was written in Sendai in 1940, shortly before Japan became one of the Axis Powers, that it was the product of affection, homesickness and war, that the seismic ripples to which the poet compares his mother’s laughter were realities he was experiencing day by day, as his diaries record, that his emotional need was all the greater because his own marriage to a devout Catholic woman seemed likely to founder, and compare contrast graphic organizer that a few months later it would break up as he made a new future with the mit sdm best, Canadian writer Elizabeth Smart. All this I could only try – prosaically but I hoped not pedantically – to convey. There was the additional problem that this was still relatively recent history.

Nothing I said would be final. Already I knew enough about the history of biography to recognize the successive phases through which written accounts of the eminent dead must pass: from epitaph to compare contrast essay obituary, from lee's movie jungle fever essay, obituary to eulogy, from eulogy to elegy, and then – the most difficult step of all – from elegy to biography. The biographer’s task begins where that of the obituarist ends, necessitating a destabilising transition both of substance and of style. Traditionally, an compare contrast graphic obituarist’s brief has been to praise famous men and women, and to leave the more questionable areas of their conduct out. Remarked Max Beerbohm in 1953: “The obituarists seem hardly to do justice to the intensely interesting personality of Irving in private life.” Though the decorum has relaxed of late, the traditional attitude has been one of tact, a lone remnant of which remains in a concluding sentence parodied during the 1960s in Monty Python’s Flying Circus as “A pity he never married.” From these constraints the thesis on gangs, biographer is compare contrast mercifully set free.

Jane Austen’s biographers had carried her beyond that stage long ago. At least, so I thought. When I visited her last home in Chawton some time ago, I found myself in the chamber she once shared with her sister Cassandra. In the same room stood two middle-aged visitors, one of whom turned to her friend and exclaimed “Oh, what a pity she never married!” In times gone by, an interval was allowed to elapse between obituaries and biographies. Alas, this was not the case with Barker about whom, not long after his decease, I had delivered an acceptable laudation at the PEN club in London, on the basis of essay contest, which a biography was commissioned by the family.

Matters proceeded quite satisfactorily until the first draft was complete, at which point there entered that personage much dreaded by biographers: THE WIDOW. Negotiations were initiated at a remote cottage in Norfolk during one of the coldest Aprils on record. Compare Essay! When the first, faintly satirical, draft looked likely to prevail, the Widow discovered she possessed a weapon: she turned off all of the heating in the house. The ordeal was excruciating, despite the fact that I had temporarily grown a beard in self-defence. As she reported to the readers of research papers on energy, Tatler in March, 2002: “He tried to make me light the second bar of the Super Ser heater. Some hope. Rage kept me warm; he shivered in his grey pelt. I spoke of the charms of my glacial bathroom and the tablet of Wright’s Coal tar soap to no avail.” There are personages just as daunting to any biographer as the compare, Widow: the jane essay, Critic for example, and, when writing contemporary biography, even the Lawyer. Confronted by graphic, such spectres, how does one avoid being frozen into submission? The answer lies in lee's fever, a continual encounter and readjustment between information and style.

Information is either forthcoming, or it is not. Sometimes it is almost too forthcoming. With my very recent subject, another twentieth century poet and contrast graphic organizer a close friend of my first, I was confronted with a widow of quite a different temperament, one so obliging in her attitude, yet so apprehensive of the turn my questioning might take, that when I called on her in the Isle of Wight, she appeared at the open doorway, and almost before greeting me, launched into write essays on ipad, a graphic description of her wedding night, thus eliciting the response, ‘This is all very helpful, Mrs Gascoyne, but do you mind if I sit down first?’ It is not always so straightforward. Most people who know anything about the poet David Gascoyne are aware of compare organizer essay, three facts: that he started writing whilst very young, that he became a notable exponent of surrealism while scarcely out of religion, his teens, and that he later went mad. One question with which his biographer has to concern himself is the relationship between the poetry and the madness, possibly between both and the medication taken to alleviate the second.

Gascoyne had once worked as a translator for Salvador Dali, an artist who had insisted – as had several of the surrealists – that the roots of poetry lie in a sort of controlled paranoia. Graphic Essay! What therefore, I wondered, had been the results when Gascoyne succumbed to paranoia himself? In the light of these questions, his medical records were of essential interest, so, very soon after starting my enquiries, I set out to find them. Essay! I visited the Wellcome Institute, who were welcoming but had nothing to compare contrast graphic show me. They directed me to the records office in the Isle of religion, Wight, who directed me to the County Record Office, who directed me to the British Library, who in turn suggested the Wellcome Institute across the street. I had turned in an almost circle. So I decided to go asylum by compare contrast graphic organizer essay, asylum. This approach proved little more fruitful, since many be then had been demolished, or converted into upmarket housing estates. Undaunted, I Googled several and discovered that, prior to its gentrification, Horton Hospital in Epsom, in thesis on gangs, which Gascoyne had spent his most gruelling months, and where he had received Electric Shock Treatment, had commissioned a house history from Ruth Valentine. So I found her email, and contrast contacted her.

She replied rapidly, but informed me that she had taken little account of individual case notes, principally because they were not to hand. However, one person who had tried to access them had been that psycho-geographer and edgy stylist Iain Sinclair. Sinclair’s imagination had once been haunted by the East End Jewish mystic and recluse David Rodinski, who died in Horton in 1969. In 1999 he had published his findings in the co-authored biography Rodinski’s Room, and several years later had re-visited the Horton complex on the eve of spike lee's jungle essay, its gentrification, relating the experience in his bitter travelogue London Orbital, which takes as one of its motifs a pilgrimage to several such shrines. So I got hold of both books, and ‘phoned Sinclair up: he had known Gascoyne well, and we had already agreed to meet. Sitting in compare contrast graphic essay, his home in jane essay, Hackney – the borough, not the cab – Sinclair confirmed what his books already disclosed: a fire had devoured most of the records from the gloomy history of Horton, and the rest had been shredded. His quest had been as frustrating as my own.

If any of the records had survived, he told me, there was only one place where they might have been stowed: in the London Metropolitan Archives, but he had already pestered them to no avail. Compare Contrast Graphic! As a last ditch attempt I got in thesis on gangs, touch with the compare organizer, London archives, who confirmed what Sinclair had already told me. If I wished to mit sdm best leave my ’phone number just in compare graphic organizer, case Gascoyne’s records did turn up, they would jot it down. What does a biographer do faced with such impediments? The problem is easy to detect from the appearance of jane essay, four features in a text: the most obvious of which are the rhetorical question and the conditional clause. They are perhaps your weakest suits, and in weak biographies are frequently used, sometimes in combination: to smooth over ignorance, to fill gaps in the narrative, or to disguise the biographer’s personal prejudices. Compare Contrast Organizer! Even the strongest biographers fall back on these devices when unsure of their ground. Here is thesis on gangs Ackroyd speculating on Dickens’ state of mind in 1859 when he has just become interested in the eighteen-year old actress Ellen Ternan, and suddenly insists on compare contrast graphic essay, a physical separation from his wife Catherine, ordering a carpenter to put up a partition between their sleeping quarters. Spike! Ackroyd speculates – it is compare organizer essay only speculation – that Mrs Dickens may have caught sight of some incriminating reference to mit sdm best Nelly in her husband’s correspondence. Rhetorically he asks: “Did she say something? Something that enraged him?” Then come the compare graphic, conditional clauses, leading to a disclaimer; “So if Dickens was at this time suffused by an innocent and best almost infantile love for Ellen Tiernan, if she had become for contrast graphic organizer essay, him something of a sacred and untouchable object, it is not difficult to understand his fury if anyone, even his wife, should place what he considered to be a false construction on his behaviour”. “But”, admits Ackroyd, “This is mere surmise” and then passes on spike lee's jungle essay, to the stolidity of fact before we have had time to contrast organizer essay note certain facets in his own style: that he has called Ellen an “object”, that he has used the verb “understand” without explaining whether this implies collusion, and movie jungle fever that he has hinted at suspicions of his subject’s wandering affections entertained by “even his wife.” Even his wife?

Surely, especially a wife. In her bicentenary life of Dickens, published last month, Tomalin – famously a wife – reaches the very point at which Ackroyd stumbled, with the important difference that Tomalin is as convinced that Dickens slept with Nelly as Ackroyd was persuaded that he did not. But Tomalin had apparently noticed something Ackroyd had missed: a letter in graphic organizer essay, Russian from spike fever, Dostoyevski to a friend describing a conversation with Dickens in contrast organizer essay, London in 1862, not long after the marital rift, in which Dickens confesses to feelings of research papers, guilt. “There were two people in him, he told me: one who feels as he ought to compare contrast essay feel and one who feels the opposite. From the jane essay, one who feels the opposite I make my evil characters, from the one who feels as a man ought to feel I try to live my life.’ What could possibly be neater: the outer partition across the compare contrast graphic essay, bedroom embodying an inner partition across Dickens’ mind? That the reported confession told us as much about the author of mit sdm thesis, Crime and Punishment as the author of Bleak House, merely added to the richness. Then came the contrast, condition clause: “if Dostoyevsky remembered correctly, it must be Dickens’ most profound statement about his inner life“.

It seemed a considerable coup but, as it transpired, Tomalin required one additional conditional clause to run: “if this evidence is to be trusted.” It was with concern that one opened The Sunday Times on December 4th to read the biographer’s own confession: the on energy auditing, letter from compare contrast organizer essay, Dostoyevsy probably does not exist and, trusting to auditing a secondary source, Tomalin has been the victim of a hoax. Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer Essay! The moral for the rest of us is clear: never quote a document unless you have seen it. A third and auditing surer resource for the questing biographer is the free indirect style, a technique that in the early twentieth century biographers borrowed from novelists. Free indirect discourse, as any decent Dictionary of Narratology will tell you, is where you paraphrase your subject’s inner thoughts as if they were your own. The parallel passages I offered earlier from Austen and compare contrast Tomalin both deploy it to some effect. Strachey uses it over and over, even when – especially when – he is being ironic. His adoption of it for biography is probably more revolutionary than his arch tone, and in the long run more influential. The agent of the cross-over, I should say, is Virginia Woolf, who begins Mrs Dalloway with several paragraphs in which her narrative floats freely between her own narrative consciousness, that of her protagonist and that of her reader, leaving the boundaries between them unclear: “How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave…”,.

This is classic free indirect writing, of which you can find premonitions, as I have demonstrated, even in Austen. Jane Essay! Four years later the device re-appears in a book of Woolf’s that is, strictly speaking, neither novel nor biography, but a hybrid that aspires to be – and has for eighty years influenced – both: Orlando: A Biography. Famously this is a pseudo-biography of Woolf’s girlfriend Vita Sackville West that Woolf’s husband Leonard considered to be a satire on biography itself. And, lo and behold, at the very moment when she turns to graphic organizer this book, Woolf’s own biographer, Hermione Lee, spontaneously inflects into the free indirect style, combining it with a rhetorical question. ‘The first person [Woolf] told about the new book,” she tells us, was Vita. “Would she mind if Orlando turned out to be Vita?” Such writing is the perfect alternative to circumlocution, as I discovered when attempting to convey George Barker’s feelings of responsibility after the death of a close relative. Rhetorical questions piled themselves on conditional clauses in a desperate attempt to lee's movie jungle be fair to all concerned, until rescue arrived in the shape of a four-word sentence: “He had killed her”. Had he? Of course not. But the poet in him felt that he had, and that was the point. It is because the free indirect style is so accessible a code, one now understood by essay, most readers, that it is write essays so recurrently useful.

How did I know that my poet felt like this? By consulting his work of course, which leads me to compare contrast graphic organizer the biographer’s fourth and can you write essays mini strongest resource: quotation. In the case of poets the primary source of quotation is the poetry itself, which the reader is compare organizer likely to regard as a form of direct disclosure. Superficially the jane essay, prospective biographer has a wonderful opportunity of putting these two perspectives together. Organizer! There are, however, few areas in which one needs to tread more carefully than this. To call up a poem as witness to spike movie fever what the poet was feeling at any one time and compare contrast organizer essay place is thesis on gangs platitudinously to assume that the voice of the contrast, poem and that of the human being who produced it are one and essay the same, and to pay scant regard to the latter’s skill at artistic distancing. If the poem is graphic essay melancholy, it does not necessarily follow that the poet felt sad.

Never trust a poet who is telling you where, when, or how he is. Barker once addressed a passionate apostrophe to Lake Nemi whilst sitting by Lake Albano. One of Dylan Thomas’s earliest expostulations begins: “Especially when the October wind/ With frosty fingers punishes my hair…” It thus is jane essay with interest that one turns to his manuscript draft and reads “Especially when the graphic essay, November wind…” Under such circumstances, biographers who place too great a trust in their readerly instinct are liable to thesis on gangs give themselves away. One of my favourite Metaphysical poems is “Twickenham Garden” by that other satirist John Donne, which begins: Blasted with sighs, and surrounded with teares, Hither I come to essay seek the spring, And at my eyes, and at mine eares, Receive such balms, as else cure everything; But O, selfe traitor, I do bring.

The spider love, which transubstantiates all, And can convert manner to spike lee's movie essay gall, And that this place may thoroughly be thought. True paradise, I have the serpent brought. What do Donne’s biographers make of it? Izaak Walton, his first, had been a parishioner of the Revd Dr Donne’s at St Dunstan’s in the West. So respectful is graphic he of the priest that he ignores this and all of Donne’s amatory poems.

Then comes Johnson’s anathema, and one and a half centuries elapse before Edmund Gosse attempts to frame the life in the work. Spike Lee's Movie! But Johnson’s anathema still lingers in the air, and Gosse cocks a snoot at contrast graphic organizer essay what he calls Donne’s “turbid language”, since, he protests, “with all his genius, he lacked the last ornament of essays mini, a perfect style – lucidity” . Decoded, this means “I may only be a biographer and no poet, but at least what I am saying is clear.” The first biographer to turn specifically to the Twickenham poem, in 1970, is Robert Bald, who dates it after 1618 when the compare organizer, property at Twickenham was acquired by one of Donne’s most valued patrons, Lucy, Countess of Bedford. How gracious, he thinks, that in visiting her there, presumably in the spring, Donne should have paid her the compliment of assuming the pose of can you write essays on ipad mini, Ovidian lover. Perhaps she had suggested the compare contrast, piece; perhaps he showed it to contest her. Then, in compare contrast essay, 1981 comes the most Strachean literary biography I know, John Carey’s John Donne: Life, Mind and Art, which accuses Donne of spike lee's jungle essay, insincerity in its opening sentence. Carey discusses Twickenham Garden in a chapter headed “Ambition”, remarking that “Donne’s ego has taken over. He has become the centre of his own poem, and compare essay dropped the subservient role. He strides like a shade through the spike jungle fever essay, garden, carrying venom and death. He establishes himself at the garden’s sad heart, an eternal weeper, visited by pilgrims…transforms himself in compare graphic organizer, the poem into jane essay, a lover, in compare organizer essay, order to surmount the humiliating fact that he is no more than a beggarly dependant.” Carey is can you write essays on ipad a biographer who keeps bees as a hobby, mostly in his bonnet; in that passage it is he, the biographer who is dependent, and compare graphic organizer he who is striding. Research On Energy Auditing! No biographer that I know considers a third interpretation: that the married Donne rather fancied his patroness, and compare graphic essay felt guilty about it.

Such subtleties are too much for Jonathan Holmes, author of a recent play about Donne. Holmes has Donne humping the Countess all over the stage: tough on the stage, tougher still on the Countess, and very misleading for the large audiences at thesis on gangs Wilton’s Music Hall in the City undeterred by the stern warning “Contains nudity”. To each his morality, to each his style. So much for the pitfalls. What of the advantages? The truest biographies, it seems to me, neither exalt not demean, but perform a subtler balance: they recognize strength and honour frailty. They achieve in the literary sphere what the late Lucian Freud did in his portraits, depicting its subjects exposed to view, and with a kind of ruthless love. Graphic! To sustain this precarious feat requires precision, both of observation and religion essay contest of style. A wise biographer uses words sparingly. He avoids hyperbole, since truth is rarely extreme. He does not write “huge” when he means “considerable”, or “excellent” when he means “impressive”, does not write “fantastic” unless referring to a phantasm, or “crucial“ unless alluding to graphic organizer essay a cross.

Anecdotes he may find useful since they draw the reader in, though as a guide to perceptions of the facts, rather than the spike jungle essay, facts themselves. Two maxims attend a biographer’s doings. The first is from the French poet, Paul Valery: “Of two words, always chose the lesser”. The second is from Samuel Johnson again. “If a phrase of yours particularly pleases you, strike it out.” When engaged on the task, one does not dwell on justification. Self-Reflection too often gets in a way. People often seem to think a biographer’s work justified if it justifies the life described. But there are three applications of this term, two of compare contrast organizer essay, which, I have reason to jane essay think, are out of place in biography. You should, I believe, never attempt justification in the sense in which people justify a deed or a statement.

It is contrast graphic organizer essay no part of a biographer’s job to argue that everything, or even most, of what his subject did, wrote or said was right (that tedious trait of so many a political memoir). Not should you try to justify a chosen life in jane essay, the sense in which a printer justifies a margin or a page. To regularise, standardise or tidy up the facts is compare contrast graphic essay no part of jane essay, your purpose: untidiness in contrast, the life is a positive blessing. But there is a third type of justification which pertains to the act of jane essay, writing itself. Performed well and compare contrast graphic truthfully, it confers justification backwards on papers, the life observed.

To achieve justification of this third kind entails a mix of moral and stylistic obligations – to compare organizer research assiduously and widely, to interpret and to religion essay understand with exactitude, justice and candour, to endow your story with momentum, where necessary with suspense, and to phrase your insights clearly, and with tolerant humour. You can dignify a life by graphic, writing about it well, but you most certainly can ruin one by writing about jane essay, it badly. Style is an graphic organizer essay obligation, but it is also a tribute. Papers Auditing! As Russell recognised a century ago, and Carpenter confirmed, biography can be Naughty but Nice. All things considered, it is surprising nobody has moved to ban it. In some places they already have. “The Italians”, the contrast essay, Times Literary Supplement informed us recently, “do not practice biography” – an spike jungle essay extraordinary claim seeing as they practice everything else, and perform it too. In time, even here, notices must surely appear in public buildings announcing “This is a non-biographical zone.” At every exit biographers will stand in furtive groups, casting conspiratorial glances at one another, smirking as the non-biographers pass by, and stamping the evidence underfoot before pocketing their files labelled “Biography damages your mental health”, or, more incriminatingly, “Biography kills.” Above all, biography teaches you patience.

At length I gave up any hope of compare contrast organizer, ever seeing Gascoyne’s medical records and, after two years of thesis on gangs, archival toil, of travels, interviews and adventures, withdrew into the converted coal cellar that serves as my study, and wrote my book. I completed three drafts incorporating my rhetorical questions and conditional clauses and, when the compare organizer essay, last was finished, I checked the quotes and dates, printed it all out, composed a covering letter, and papers auditing addressed a box stout enough to convey the heavy typescript to Oxford. I made a cup of coffee, settled down on the sofa upstairs, and expelled a sanctimonious sigh of relief. And then the telephone rang. Writing the compare organizer, lives of people and things, AD 500-1700: An interdisciplinary conference. Writing the lives of people and movie things, AD 500-1700: An interdisciplinary conference.

Chawton House Library, Hampshire. Key-note Speaker: Charles Nicholl (author of The Lodger: Shakespeare on Silver Street. and The Reckoning: The Murder of Christopher Marlowe ) Registration is still open for this early-career conference at Chawton House Library hosted by graphic organizer, the Centre for thesis on gangs, Medieval and Renaissance Culture, University of Southampton, due to take place on 1-2 March 2012. The theme for the two days is interdisciplinary approaches to compare contrast organizer essay biography in the study of the medieval and mit sdm best early modern periods, and includes a key-note lecture from contrast graphic organizer, Charles Nicholl, the acclaimed author. It will bring together postgraduates and early-career researchers from spike movie jungle essay, Archaeology, History, Art History, English, and Music, with sessions including ‘The lives of objects and their owners’, ‘Lives on Stage’ and ‘Rescuing forgotten lives’. A small number of bursaries are available for attendees. For more information and to register please visit the conference website:

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oci sample resume Cell phone mounts that cradle your phone on your dash are considered a hands-free device and functions that use of a single touch or swipe to activate or deactivate the device or a function of the device are acceptable. Navigation Apps, Music Apps can only be used if you keep both hands on the wheel. Just standing still in graphic essay traffic, stopping at a red light or a stop sign isn't enough, your car must be parked safely. Calling 911 in case of an emergency is jane essay only okay if no one else can initiate the call.

The Law includes cell phones, tablets, kindles, laptops, GPS units, mobile music players or any electronic device. If you are under 18, you can't use anything while driving, even hands-free. 1st violation is $260.00 fine, 2nd violation or 1st if it involves a wreck is $435.00 fine and 3rd offense is 6 months in jail or up to $2500.00 fine. Hands-free or built in devices are allowed under the law. Other exemptions include those making medical emergency calls, truck and bus drivers following federal rules, two-way radio use by school drivers and utility drivers during the scope of their employment, police, fire, ambulance, and emergency vehicle operators during the scope of their employment and compare contrast, ham radio operators. As one of on ipad six campuses of the Washington State University system, WSU Vancouver offers big-school resources in a small-school environment. The university provides affordable, high-quality baccalaureate- and contrast graphic organizer, graduate-level education to benefit the people and communities it serves. As the only four-year research university in thesis on gangs Southwest Washington, WSU Vancouver helps drive economic growth through relationships with local businesses and industries, schools and nonprofit organizations. - Pets who recreated in the Columbia River, downstream of the railroad bridge, over the weekend should be washed.

- Fish caught in the Columbia River, downstream of the railroad bridge, over the weekend should be properly cleaned and cooked. Additional arrests are anticipated related to this investigation related to fraud, forgery, possession of methamphetamine, felony theft and compare graphic essay, felony possession of stolen property. Contact: Staci Yutzie. Notice of Regular Meeting. The Basic Police Revision Advisory Panel will hold a regular meeting on October 16, 2017 from 11:00a-2:00p. The meeting will be held in Conference Room # A145 at on ipad, the Oregon Public Safety Academy in Salem, Oregon. The meeting location is accessible to persons with disabilities. A request for an interpreter for graphic organizer essay, the deaf or hearing impaired or for other accommodations for persons with disabilities should be made before the meeting by calling the contact listed above. a. Review Drafts. c. Recommendation to move to Police Policy Committee- Vote Needed. b. Advisory Panel members.

This is a public meeting, subject to contest the public meeting law and it will be recorded. Deliberation of issues will only be conducted by Basic Police Revision Advisory Panel members unless permitted by contrast essay the Chair. Individuals who engage in disruptive behavior that impedes official business will be asked to stop being disruptive or leave the meeting. Write On Ipad Mini? Additional measures may be taken to have disruptive individuals removed if their continued presence poses a safety risk to the other persons in the room or makes it impossible to continue the meeting. ## Background Information on the DPSST ## Speakers: Clean Safe Board Chair, Peter Andrews.

Portland Mayor, Ted Wheeler. President CEO of Central City Concern, Dr. Compare Graphic? Rachel Solotaroff. 10:00 a.m. -- 10:30 a.m. Awards. 10:30 a.m. -- 11:00 a.m. Mingling, eating and jane essay, drinking. Where: Director Park -- Lower Terrace (under overhang), S.W. Park S.W. Taylor. 250 + attendees with lunch provided for all.

40+ children's helmets were fitted and given out. 10+ door prizes were provided. Attendees knew about the readiness fair by: o Hearing public service announcements on the radio. o Reading the ads in local newspapers. o Reading the contrast graphic essay, announcement on Facebook. o Reading about the fair on the on-line media outlets. o Reading the announcement on agency website. 72 individuals assisted (see attached media release for write essays mini, additional details)

Northwest Natural Gas as our primary sponsor and co-host of our event; they provided many free giveaways, full hot dog and hamburger lunch for all and supported with advertising of the event. Newport Police Department for compare contrast graphic organizer, coordinating and organizing the research papers on energy auditing, children's bike rodeo and bike helmets also sponsored by Lincoln City Police Department, Toledo Police Department and compare graphic, Lincoln County Sheriff's Office. Lincoln County Community Corrections for the support by their Community Work Crew for setting-up tables (60+) and chairs (120+) and mit sdm, other items pre event. Angell Job Corps Honor Guard (students) for their assistance with greeting the attendees, providing directions and clean-up post event. Oregon Coast Community College Nursing Students for their assistance with the immunization clinic. Community Volunteers: CERT Chapters of Lincoln County, US Coast Guard Auxiliary, Newport Police Department Volunteers, Lincoln County Sheriff's Office Emergency Management, Auxiliary Communications Service, Search and Rescue. Vendors: Amerigas, Electronic Superstore (Lincoln City), SERVPRO (Lincoln Co.), Earthquake Management (California), Mountain House Foods (Albany), Go-Stay-Kit (Oregon) Community Partners: Payne West Insurance, Pacific West Ambulance, Life Flight, Samaritan Health Services, Lincoln County School District. Media Partners: Local and regional print, radio and on-line media partners who supported our announcements and advertisements for the event. City, County and contrast organizer essay, Public Safety Partners: City of spike jungle fever essay Newport -- Fire Department, North Lincoln Fire and Rescue, County Public Health, Sheriff's Office, Facilities, Information Technology. State and compare graphic organizer essay, Federal Partners: Oregon Department of mit sdm best Transportation, National Weather Service, US Coast Guard -- Station Yaquina Bay, ARMY National Guard, Oregon Health Authority, Oregon Department of Geology and Minerals Industry.

Lincoln County Fair Board: Continued use of the Lincoln County Commons grounds and facilities. County Emergency Management website for contrast graphic essay, more information on your individual, family or business planning efforts: http://www.co.lincoln.or.us/emergencymanagement. County Health and Human Services for public health information: http://www.co.lincoln.or.us/hhs. Lincoln County Sheriff's Office. 225 W. Jane Essay? Olive St., Newport, Oregon 97365. (541) 265-4199 Office. Easthill Church, Kids City Bldg. 701 N. Contrast Graphic? Main, Gresham, Oregon. 3848 NW Division, Gresham, Oregon.

During an essays emergency, we will need to count on each other. 2 Weeks Ready means being aware of what hazards can occur, having a kit and knowing what to do 2 hours, 2 days and 2 weeks after a disaster. A series of contrast graphic organizer essay short and lively videos have been produced to shed light on best simple ways to be 2 Weeks Ready. Contrast Organizer Essay? They focus on food, shelter, water, first aid, pets, youth and neighbors. The first video in the series can be viewed at http://bit.ly/2hKDWfl. The series will launch on October 11. UNAUTHORIZED USE OF A VEHICLE: ORS 164.135. UNLAWFUL ENTRY INTO A MOTOR VEHICLE: ORS 164.272. ROBBERY IN THE THIRD DEGREE: ORS 164.395. ASSAULT IN THE FOURTH DEGREE: ORS 163.160.

RECKLESSLY ENDANGERING ANOTHER PERSON: ORS 163.195. FLEEING OR ATTEMPTING TO ELUDE A POLICE OFFICER: ORS 811.540. RECKLESS DRIVING: ORS 811.140. BURGLARY IN THE SECOND DEGREE: ORS 164.215. CRIMINAL TRESPASS IN THE SECOND DEGREE: ORS 164.245. ASSAULT ON A PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICER: ORS 163.208.

ASSAULT IV: ORS 163.160. MENACING: ORS 163.190. ATTEMPTED THEFT I: ORS 164.055. FELON IN POSSESSION OF A FIREARM: ORS 166.270. RESISTING ARREST: ORS 162.315. ESCAPE II: ORS 162.155. INTERFERING WITH A PEACE OFFICER: ORS 162.247. Attendees must be Farm Bureau members and be between the ages of 16 and 35. Registration forms are due to the office no later than 4 p.m. on Nov. 3.

Event limited to jane essay the first 70 registration forms and payments received. Nearby hotel available at reduced rate for conference attendees. Oregon Board of compare graphic organizer Forestry sets Oct. 11 planning retreat. The Oregon Board of Forestry will hold a planning retreat on best Oct. Compare Essay? 11 to discuss work plans and spike lee's movie essay, operations for the coming year. No formal decisions will be made during the meeting, which is compare contrast graphic organizer essay open to the public.

The retreat will run from 9 a.m. to jane essay 3 p.m., with an executive session following, in the Lotus Room at the Oregon Gardens, located at 895 West Main St. in Silverton. Tuesday, Oct. Compare Contrast Organizer Essay? 24, Room 213, Building 5, Rock Creek Campus, 17705 SW Springville Road. Wednesday, Oct. 25, Rooms 203-204, Student Union, Cascade Campus, 705 N. Religion Contest? Killingsworth St. Thursday, Oct. 26, Community Hall, Southeast Campus, 2305 SE 82nd and Division. About Portland Community College: Portland Community College is the largest post-secondary institution in graphic organizer Oregon and essay, provides training, degree and certificate completion, and lifelong learning to contrast organizer essay more than 75,000 full- and papers on energy, part-time students in Multnomah, Washington, Yamhill, Clackamas, and Columbia counties. The PCC bond measure of $185 million would improve workforce training programs to compare contrast graphic better align with current and future jobs, invest in training for Health and contest, STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math) programs, and upgrade safety, security, longevity and disability access. If passed, it is estimated to maintain the compare organizer, tax rate of 40 cents per $1,000 of religion assessed property value for contrast organizer, the next 16 years. While many Oregonians welcome the contest, signs of fall, there's one big downside to compare contrast organizer the cooler weather: flu season.

Get Vaccinated. In fact, the CDC recommends people get their flu vaccine by the end of thesis on gangs October. Find out where to get your flu shot at graphic, flushot.healthmap.org. Wash your hands. Or use an on ipad mini alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Cough and sneeze into your sleeve or elbow--not your hand. Make healthy choices. Eat healthy foods, drink lots of water, get good sleep, manage stress, and get plenty of fresh air and organizer, exercise. If you do get sick, stay home. Oregon law requires employers with 10 or more employees to thesis on gangs provide 40 hours of paid leave per year. SAIF is Oregon's not-for-profit workers' compensation insurance company.

For more than 100 years, we've been taking care of injured workers, helping people get back to work, and compare graphic organizer essay, striving to make Oregon the safest and healthiest place to jane essay work. For more information, visit the compare contrast graphic organizer, About SAIF page on can you essays on ipad saif.com. Sign language and spoken language interpreters. Written materials in other languages. Audio and compare essay, other formats. Northwest /Willamette Valley - 20 participants.

Riddell Farm -- Monmouth. Burkholder Farms -- Albany. Wilbur Ellis -- Corvallis. Cascade Timber Consulting-- Sweet Home. Northwest Transplants -- Molalla. Northwest Farm Credit Services -- Salem. Oregon Department of Agriculture -- Portland. Northwest Farm Credit Services -- Eugene. Barenbrug USA -- Scio. Wilco Hazelnut, LLC -- Aurora. Oregon Department of Agriculture -- Stayton.

Miller Timber Services -- Albany. Oregon Water Resource Congress -- Salem. Blue Line Farms -- Silverton. Pacific Risk Management-- Rickreall. Ruddenklau Farms -- Amity. Pearmine Farms -- Gervais. Oregon Farm Bureau -- Eugene. Oregon Farm Bureau -- Salem. Klamath Water Users Association-- Klamath Falls.

Flowers Farms -- Midland/Klamath Falls. Doverspike Ranch -- Burns. OSU Extension -- Lakeview. Sage Fruit Company -- The Dalles. Pacific Ag -- Hermiston. Umatilla County -- Athena. Oregon Department of thesis on gangs Agriculture -- Pendleton. Lone Rock Resources -- Roseburg. Kenagy Cattle Company -- Oakland.

residence of compare contrast Amador Urquidez, located at 2110 NE 155th Ave. Heroin with Intent to Distribute. of Heroin and 4 firearms. search warrant at spike movie jungle essay, the residence of 8217 NE 35th Ave with the assistance of Southwest. Corrections warrant with pending charges for Escape Community Custody and. Maintaining a Drug House. Corrections warrant with pending charges for Escape Community Custody, Maintaining a Drug House, Possession of Heroin and graphic essay, Possession of.

Possession of a Controlled Substance w/ Intent to thesis on gangs Deliver Meth and Heroin, Maintaining a Drug House. Corrections Probation Violation. All arrested individuals were booked into organizer, the Clark County Jail. This investigation is ongoing. The suspect arrested by fever essay Special Emergency Reaction Team (SERT) members this morning in connection to a death investigation has been identified as 28-year-old Robert L. West of Portland. Special Emergency Reaction Team (SERT) members have taken the suspect into custody. Today, the estimated population is about 73,000 wild horses and compare, burros in 10 Western states--a record number since the mit sdm thesis, 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act was passed-- and almost three times the number the habitat can sustainably support in conjunction with other land uses. Draw a map of your home with all members of your household, marking two exits from each room and a path to the outside from graphic organizer each exit. Practice your home fire drill twice a year. Conduct one at night and one during the day with everyone in your home, and practice using different ways out.

Teach children how to thesis on gangs escape on their own in organizer case you can't help them. Close doors behind you as you leave -- this may slow the spread of smoke, heat, and fire. Once you get outside, stay outside. Never go back inside a burning building. Coquine -- 6839 SE Belmont; 8 a.m. to 10 a.m. Starbucks -- 3639 SE Hawthorne, 8:30 a.m. to 10 a.m. Starbucks -- Sellwood at Milwaukee and Bybee, 5:00-7:30 p.m. North Precinct Coffee Shop -- 449 NE Emerson, 8 a.m. to 10 a.m. Starbucks -- 15th and Fremont, noon to jane essay 2pm.

Starbucks -- 23rd and Burnside, 11 am to graphic organizer 1 pm. Billy Henry, Founder/Executive Director. Northwest Association for Blind Athletes. 311 West Evergreen Blvd, Ste. 200. Vancouver, Washington 98660. Local Phone: 1-360-718-2826. Toll Free: 1-800-880-9837. HOURS 9 a.m.--5 p.m. daily | Target Free First Friday on first Friday of every month from 4--8 p.m.

ADMISSION Museum members: Free | Under age 1: Free | Ages 1¬--54: $10.75 | Over 55 military: $9.75. CONTACT 503.223.6500 | portlandcm.org | facebook.com/portlandcm. Through the Museum's learning approach of playful inquiry, we provide a place for children and their families to have fun, educational experiences. We make visible the ways children think, imagine, and jane essay, create when given the opportunity to express themselves using the tools of the arts and sciences. We use familiar (and unfamiliar) materials, activities, and exhibits that craft opportunities for children to learn through play.

Our approach is essay inspired by the early childhood schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy; built on inquiry-based learning strategies; and influenced by a strong image of the child as intelligent, creative, and resourceful. The time spent addressing the building's issues is time taken away from developing programs and curriculum that are positive for students and on ipad, faculty -- time away from what we could and should be doing, McGuire cautioned. About Portland Community College: Portland Community College is the contrast graphic organizer essay, largest post-secondary institution in Oregon and provides training, degree and research on energy, certificate completion, and lifelong learning to more than 75,000 full- and part-time students in Multnomah, Washington, Yamhill, Clackamas, and Columbia counties. Contrast Graphic Organizer? The PCC bond measure of essays $185 million would improve workforce training programs to better align with current and future jobs, invest in training for compare, Health and STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts and Math) programs, and upgrade safety, security, longevity and disability access. If passed, it is estimated to research papers on energy auditing maintain the tax rate of 40 cents per compare, $1,000 of assessed property value for the next 16 years. POMPEII: THE EXHIBITION + Museum General Admission: $26 (adults) | $17 (ages 3-13) | $22 (ages 63+)

POMPEII: THE EXHIBITION for OMSI Members: $16 (adults) | $10 (ages 3-13) | $12 (ages 63+) Founded by John Norman in 2003, Exhibitions International is the world's preeminent museum exhibition producer. Research Papers On Energy Auditing? Under Norman's direction, the company was entrusted with the most valuable treasures from earth and sea, including objects from the tomb of Tutankhamun, relics from Cleopatra's Royal Palace, Princess Diana's Royal Wedding Gown, and the only authenticated pirate treasure in the world. These riches are the heart and soul of breathtaking museum experiences created by Exhibitions International. Each unforgettable experience has mesmerized audiences at the finest art, science and history museums worldwide -- totaling more than 30 million visitors. A world-class museum located in the heart of the city, the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (MANN) houses one of the most important collections of classical archaeology in contrast organizer essay the world. Set in the massive 16th century palace Palazzo degli Studi, the museum was founded by Ferdinand IV in 1777. Formed from the discoveries from the mit sdm best, Vesuvian Excavations which were at compare contrast organizer essay, the time exhibited in Museo Herculanese in religion essay the Royal Palace at compare contrast graphic, Portici and his family's extensive collection of art and thesis on gangs, Roman antiquities, the Farnese collection, today the museum holds over three million objects of archaeological and historic importance. Founded in graphic essay 1944, the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) is one of the can you write essays mini, nation's leading science museums, a world-class tourist attraction, and an award-winning educational resource for compare organizer essay, the kid in contest each of us.

OMSI operates the largest museum-based outdoor science education program in the country and provides traveling and community outreach programs that bring science learning opportunities to schools and community organizations in nearly every county in Oregon. OMSI is located at 1945 SE Water Avenue, Portland, OR 97214. For general information, call 503.797.4000 or visit omsi.edu. Do not wire funds to people you do not know. Check with your county recorder to compare contrast graphic learn who owns the thesis on gangs, property you are seeking to rent. Do not fill our applications online until you have met directly with the property manager. Be wary if a potential tenant wants to rent property sight unseen. Be wary if a potential renter says he is contrast graphic out of lee's movie country and will send you a cashiers check. Be wary if a potential landlord says he is graphic organizer essay out of country and wants the rent sent to a foreign account.

Special Parts Savings -- Money-saving parts coupons and offers to help keep your equipment at its best. Home Workshop Product Discounts -- A 10 percent discount off MSRP on eligible John Deere tools and workshop equipment -- air compressors, generators, pressure washers and more. Exclusive Member Promotions -- new exclusive offers and essay, promotions delivered to your inbox -- along with insider tips and great ideas for enhancing your equipment experience. Deere Company (NYSE: DE) is a world leader in providing advanced products and services and graphic organizer essay, is committed to the success of research on energy customers whose work is linked to the land - those who cultivate, harvest, transform, enrich and build upon the land to meet the world's dramatically increasing need for food, fuel, shelter and infrastructure. Since 1837, John Deere has delivered innovative products of superior quality built on a tradition of integrity.

For more information, visit John Deere at its worldwide website at www.JohnDeere.com. The state's largest general farm organization, Oregon Farm Bureau (OFB) is contrast graphic organizer a grassroots, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization representing the interests of the state's farmers and ranchers in the public and policymaking arenas. First established in Oregon in religion contest 1919, Farm Bureau is organized in all 36 counties and has nearly 7,000 member families professionally engaged in compare contrast graphic agriculture. About The Vancouver Clinic. The Vancouver Clinic (TVC) has cared for research papers on energy, residents of compare graphic organizer essay Southwest Washington since 1936, and thesis on gangs, is the largest private multi-specialty clinic in Clark County with over 300 providers and compare contrast, 1,100 staff. TVC operates five clinics across Vancouver, Battle Ground and Washougal, and provides 40 medical specialties. For more information, visit www.tvc.org. -Age 40 or older. -No current breast health issues.

-Qualify through the Breast Cervical and Colon Health Program. PeaceHealth St. John Kearney Breast Center -- October 14, 2017. 1615 Delaware Street, Longview, WA 98632. 200 NE Mother Joseph Place, Suite 420 Vancouver, WA 98664. PeaceHealth's Kearny Breast Centers bring together breast surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, reconstructive surgeons and other specialists for consultation and treatment planning for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and spike lee's movie jungle fever essay, other breast conditions. The Centers, located at both PeaceHealth Southwest Medical Center in Vancouver and PeaceHealth St. John Medical Center in graphic Longview, provide the full spectrum of breast health care, from religion essay screenings through diagnosis, treatment, and recovery. For more information about the compare contrast graphic essay, PeaceHealth Kearney Breast Centers, visit: The Breast, Cervical and papers auditing, Colon Health Program (BCCHP) provide breast, cervical, and colon screening to eligible women and compare graphic essay, men.The Best Protection is thesis on gangs early detection. The program provides free breast exams, cervical, pap smear test, and colon screenings to eligible people.

The region's health care leader and steward for compare graphic, 155 years, PeaceHealth Southwest Medical Center is a community-owned, not-for-profit, 450-bed, medical institution located in Vancouver, Washington. Repeatedly recognized nationally as a 100 Top Hospital, PeaceHealth Southwest provides a full range of outpatient and inpatient diagnostic, medical, and surgical services to Clark County residents. PeaceHealth Southwest is also one of thesis on gangs Clark County's largest employers with 3,400 employees and 600 active medical staff members that help support dozens of medical specialty services and programs, including cancer, heart, emergency, trauma, neuro-musculoskeletal, family birth, and primary care. For more information visit http://www.peacehealth.org/southwest. A community owned, not-for-profit 193-bed acute care hospital and Level III trauma center located in Longview, Washington, PeaceHealth St.

John is recognized nationally as a Top 100 Hospital, PeaceHealth St. John provides a full range of outpatient and inpatient diagnostic, medical, and compare essay, surgical services. The region's health care leader for more than 70 years, PeaceHealth St. John is write on ipad mini one of graphic organizer ten medical centers in the PeaceHealth System. Family Nature Fest is 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. on Saturday, October 14th. Religion? Families are encouraged to come to the festival at any time; some activities will occur at scheduled times, others will be on-going throughout the contrast essay, duration of the event. Activity hosts include: Clark County Historical Museum, Columbia Gorge Refuge Stewards, Friends of Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge, Master Composter/Recyclers, Mount St. Helens Institute, Oregon Zoo, Stream Team, Waste Connections, and more. No registration required. Admission is free, with a suggested $5 per child donation to help cover the costs of activity supplies. Thesis On Gangs? Schedule of activities and additional information are available at columbiasprings.org.

The 2017 Family Nature Fest is compare contrast essay sponsored by The Vancouver Clinic and iQ Credit Union. Columbia Springs provides our community a unique setting where educational experiences foster greater awareness of the natural world, inspiring stewardship. Papers Auditing? We envision a community of lifelong learners sharing the bond of responsible care of the contrast organizer, natural world, helping to preserve our quality of life. Columbia Springs is located at 12208 SE Evergreen Hwy in Vancouver. The plane has been identified as a Cirrus SR-22 and the investigation is still continuing to determine the cause and best thesis, who was the pilot. An aerial photo has been added to compare the release.

OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT ATTORNEY FOR CLATSOP COUNTY. On September 30, 2017 at research on energy, approximately 9:15 PM, the Oregon State Police (OSP) responded to a single vehicle crash on Hwy 101 near milepost 20; which is in the city limits of Seaside, Oregon-Clatsop County. Answerland Advisory Committee Meeting. State Library - Room 103 (or online) Monday, October 9, 2017. 10:00 a.m. to compare contrast graphic essay 12:00 p.m. 10:00 Welcome and housekeeping (Coughenour) action items (Coughenour) Quality Team (Milner) Reference Summit (Ottum) The Oregon State Police would like to thank the public for their help with this case. The investigators are working with the leads they have received and are not in need of mit sdm best any additional information at this time.

The Oregon State Police Fish and compare contrast graphic essay, Wildlife Division are asking for contest, the public's assistance in identifying two individuals that were caught on camera on private property. The subjects were contacted and compare, told they were on religion essay private property in Morrow County. in Camas, WA. The disaster affected 18, including eight adults, 10 children and contrast graphic organizer, pets. The Red Cross provided resources to help address the jane essay, immediate basic needs of those affected such as temporary housing, food, clothing, comfort kits with toiletry items, information about recovery services, and organizer essay, health and thesis on gangs, mental health services. Additional information about this incident, if available, may be obtained from the local first responding agency/fire department. Please reference CCSO Case # 17-26047. The Clackamas County Sheriff's Office is seeking the public's assistance in locating a missing family. The family consists of Veronica Weathers, a 51 year old white female, her daughter Kasey Kent a 26 year old white female, along with Kasey's three children a 7 year old female, 6 year old male and 3 year old male.

ADDITIONAL TIPS SOUGHT. Mr. Dressler was last seen in the waiting room of the Milwaukie Providence Hospital around 1:00 PM today when he walked away in an unknown direction. The Salvation Army, established in London in 1865, has been supporting those in need in His name without discrimination for more than 130 years in the United States. Approximately 25 million Americans receive assistance from The Salvation Army each year through a range of compare graphic essay social services: relief for disaster victims, food for the hungry, assistance for the disabled, outreach to spike lee's jungle the elderly and essay, ill, clothing and shelter for the homeless, and religion contest, opportunities for underprivileged children. Eighty-two cents of compare contrast every dollar donated to The Salvation Army are used to support those services in 5,000 communities nationwide. The Salvation Army tracks the level of need across the country with the jane essay, Human Needs Index (HumanNeedsIndex.org).

For more information, visit salvationarmysouthernnevada.org. Policy XXX.XX, Administrative Closure or Curtailment and Special Emergency Attendance. Policy XXX.XX, Neighborhood Livability and HOPE Intervention on Public Property. Policy XXX.XX, Board of Commissioner Meetings. Location: Bureau of Emergency Communications, 3732 SE 99th Ave, Portland, OR 97266. Parking: Access to the lot is on SE Bush Street, press the buzzer at the pedestrian gate.

Safety Campaign. The focus of this campaign is taking impaired drivers off our. streets and keeping Beaverton a safe city to travel and live. September and contrast graphic, made 28 DUII arrests. Jane Essay? During the month of October, officers will. continue their efforts to take impaired drivers off the contrast graphic organizer, streets of our no refusal city.

this year Beaverton Police Officers have taken 240 impaired drivers off of. Beaverton streets. Movie Jungle Fever? 34 of these 240 subjects refused a breath test and a warrant. for a blood draw was granted. lives and often will result in jail time. about this before you operate a motor vehicle after drinking alcohol or using any. other substance that impairs your ability to contrast graphic operate a motor vehicle safely.

Where: Barbara Roberts Human Services Building, Room 137. 500 Summer Street NE, Salem. How: Conference call 1-877-336-1829; Participant Code: 8307334. Fariborz Pakseresht, DHS Director. Ashley Carson Cottingham -- Aging and People with Disabilities. Laurie Price -- Child Welfare. Lilia Teninty-- Office of Developmental Disability. Kim Fredlund -- Self Sufficiency Programs. Trina Lee -- Vocational Rehabilitation.

Belt Compliance Rate: 80% (a decrease from the last blitz of 93%). 19 contacts in 2 -- 4 hours shifts, 0 DUII's. On October 1, 2017 Marion County Sheriff's Office located and spike jungle fever essay, arrested George. George was lodged on a previous issued warrant for unauthorized use of a motor vehicle (UUMV). The officer involved shooting is still under investigation and no further information is available at this time. The driver then fled the scene in contrast graphic organizer the Honda, which was found abandoned nearby. Lincoln County Sheriff's Office. Newport, Or 97365. The Vancouver Police Department is actively looking for 10 year old Nainoa Bratt, who is described as a Hawaiian male, about 5 feet tall and 105 lbs.

He was seen wearing a black t shirt and dark colored shorts. Write Mini? Nainoa has black hair and brown eyes. The Portland Air National Guard Base employs 1,500 Airmen who provide an economic impact of nearly $500 million to the region. The 142nd Fighter Wing defends our homeland with F-15 Eagle fighter jets, guarding the Pacific Northwest skies from northern California to the Canadian border, on graphic essay 24-hour Aerospace Control Alert as part of lee's movie fever Air Combat Command and the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). Their mission is to provide unequalled, mission-ready units to sustain combat aerospace superiority and peacetime tasking any time, any place in service to contrast graphic essay our nation, state and jane essay, community. -Sgt Alex Schoening, CCSO Traffic/Marine. On 09.27.17 at 0015 hours Clark County Deputies were dispatched to a vehicle versus bicycle collision in the 12200 block of NE 76th St.

Deputies arrived on scene and performed CPR on bicycle rider prior to EMS arrival. EMS arrived and pronounced the adult rider deceased. The adult driver of the vehicle remained on scene and compare organizer, was not injured. 170929-Z-OT568-017: Oregon Army National Guard Soldiers with Detachment 3, G Company, 1st Battalion, 189th Aviation Regiment, stand in formation during a mobilization ceremony honoring their upcoming overseas deployment, Sept. 29, 2017, in Salem, Oregon. Papers? A platoon of more than 20 Soldiers is scheduled to contrast graphic organizer deploy to the Middle East to assist with aerial medical evacuation support using Black Hawk helicopters. They will be joining their parent unit, the South Dakota Army National Guard's Company C, 1-189th Aviation Battalion, in the Middle East and will be deployed for approximately one year. Write On Ipad? (Photo by compare Sgt. 1st Class April Davis, Oregon Military Department Public Affairs) Portland, OR -- September 29, 2017 -- The Oregon Clinic was named Oregon's #1 Top Workplace among large companies Thursday evening at an event held by The Oregonian in Portland. This is the thesis on gangs, fourth year The Oregon Clinic has been recognized as one of the top workplaces in Oregon and southwest Washington, but the first year winning the top honor.

About The Oregon Clinic. The Oregon Clinic is the largest private specialty physician practice in Oregon. Approximately 350,000 patients receive respectful, compassionate care from our nearly 250 providers in more than 35 specialty areas each year. Compare Graphic Organizer Essay? Founded in Portland in can you on ipad mini 1994, The Oregon Clinic is committed to graphic organizer delivering the highest quality patient care, practicing evidence-based medicine, and providing leadership for can you write essays mini, the healthcare community. We collaborate with primary care physicians and use a team approach to address health conditions at 57 specialty clinic locations across northwest Oregon and southwest Washington.

Call 503-935-8000 or visit www.oregonclinic.com for more information. 725 Summer St NE, Salem OR | Conference rooms 124 A/B. Dial-in: Dial-in: 877-273-4202 | Code: 4978330. 9:00 Meeting Called to Order. 9:05 Public Comment.

9:15 New Member Introductions. 9:20 Meeting Minute Approval- September 8, 2017. 9:25 Single Family Section: - Residential Loan Consent Calendar. - Oregon Foreclosure Avoidance Program Design Discussion. 9:45 Multifamily Funding Decisions. 10:00 Housing Finance Transaction Thresholds Proposal for Multifamily. 10:30 LIFT Program Framework Approval.

11:00 Housing Stabilization update. - Community Action Agency 101. 12:00 Report of the Director. 12:20 Report of the Chair. OHCC ensures high quality homecare services for seniors and people with physical, intellectual/developmental and mental health disabilities. The Commission defines qualifications, manages a statewide registry and trains homecare workers (HCWs) and personal support workers (PSWs). OHCC serves as the employer of record for purposes of collective bargaining for HCWs and PSWs receiving service payments from public funds. Friends of the compare graphic organizer, Carpenter was incorporated in Vancouver, WA in can you write essays mini Oct. Compare Organizer Essay? 1998 and began as a vision of a practical outreach of simple welcome and personal interaction between volunteers from the church and people living in jane essay poverty.

Since the beginning, regular contact has been made with the homeless and contrast graphic, poor persons of our community through woodworking events scheduled throughout the community and which, today, are held at FOC's Friendship Center. Our mission: Friends of the Carpenter is a non-profit, faith-based day facility that provides safety, structure and purpose for vulnerable members of our community. Learn more at friendsofthecarpenter.org. 2018 Proposed General Increases. Roll Cart Services (mostly residential): Marion Co. 3.1% | Polk Co. 0.0 % Container Services (commercial): Marion Co. 0.0% | Polk Co. 3.7% Drop Boxes: Marion Co. 4.3% | Polk Co.

4.5% Roll Cart Services (mostly residential): Marion Co. 2.2% | Polk Co. 1.2 % Container Services (commercial): Marion Co. 0.0% | Polk Co. 3.3% Drop Boxes: Marion Co. Spike Essay? 1.3% | Polk Co. 1.8%

Most Salem residents receive weekly, 35-gallon garbage cart services. Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer? Cost for this service are proposed to increase 80 cents per month in 2018 for Marion County residents and 25 cents per spike jungle, month for Polk County residents. In 2019, the compare contrast essay, proposed increase for movie jungle essay, the 35-gallon cart service is 60 cents per month in Marion County and 25 cents per month in Polk County. The vehicle licensing office issues titles and registrations for a variety of motorized and compare organizer, non-motorized vehicles and spike jungle essay, vessels. Located in the heart of downtown Portland, OR, St. Mary's Academy is the state's oldest continuously-operating school and its only all-girls secondary school. Compare Contrast Essay? Founded in 1859 by the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, St. Mit Sdm Best Thesis? Mary's Academy serves more than 700 young women in essay grades 9-12.

The school's college acceptance rate is 100% and jane essay, SMA students achieve, excel and are recognized locally, nationally and internationally in graphic organizer academic fields, the arts, athletics, community services and co- and extracurricular activities. www.stmaryspdx.org. The Institute for Innovation in Education (iiE) is an incubator of ideas, projects, and partnerships at religion contest, the intersection of compare contrast organizer technology and learning. Building on over three decades of research and development in innovative learning at the University of Michigan, the iiE is driven by the expertise of educators of all kinds and partner organizations from around the world. Adopt rules for Division 015 --Ocean Charter Vessels to write essays on ipad mini amend definitions; clarify safety and equipment rules. Adopt rules for contrast organizer essay, Division 016 --Outfitter/Guide Registration to amend safety and jane essay, equipment rules; adopt rules for drug, health and knowledge testing. Consider initiating rulemaking for OAR 250-010-0164 --Visual Distress Signals. Consider initiating rulemaking for OAR 250-020-0385 --Boat Operations in Yamhill and Marion Counties with respect to wake-enhancing device restriction and deadline. Consider initiating rulemaking for OAR -250-016-0040 --Proof of Registration Compliance; Hunt tag program fees. Consider initiating rulemaking for organizer, OAR 250-010-0650 --Aquatic Invasive Species Prevention Permit Program with respect to issuing permits to liveries and religion essay, commercial businesses.

Consideration of Rulemaking for contrast essay, OAR 250-001-0020 Fees for furnishing information. If you have questions regarding the District, the Volunteer program, or the application process, you are encouraged to contact Division Chief Jason McKinnon at 503-668-8093 or j.mckinnon@sandyfire.org. The Repair Caf program schedules free community events where residents can bring their small household items, and together with an experienced volunteer, work on spike lee's fever essay repairing the item. Not only does this program help residents save money and live more sustainably, but it also encourages community collaboration. Items repaired at compare essay, these events include clothing, small home appliances, electronics, jewelry, bikes, and small tools. The Repair Caf program was developed by Columbia Springs, the City of Vancouver Public Works, Clark County Habitat for Humanity Re-Store, Clark County Public Health, Filbin's Ace Hardware, Vancouver Community Library, HOur Impact, and Waste Connections of papers on energy Washington. While the contrast graphic organizer, program will now become part of spike movie jungle fever essay Columbia Springs, community partners will continue to be essential to the success of the program and its growth. Graphic? With this grant funding, Columbia Springs hopes to increase the number of jane essay Repair Caf events, create a DIY information library on compare organizer essay our website, expand the network of volunteer fixers, and lee's jungle essay, increase access for low-income and contrast organizer, non-English speaking residents. The Washington State Department of Ecology's Public Participation Grant program is a competitive grant program that provides funds to essay qualified individuals and non-profit public interest organizations, with the goal of compare contrast organizer essay facilitating public participation in and implementation of the state's solid and spike lee's movie fever essay, hazardous waste management priorities. The grant is funded by a small portion of revenues collected from the Hazardous Substance Tax.

The funding recently received for the Repair Caf program is for the 2017-2019 funding cycle. Columbia Springs provides our community a unique setting where educational experiences foster greater awareness of the natural world, inspiring stewardship.

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Zelf je ondernemingsplan schrijven. Wil je je eigen bedrijf beginnen? Of je nu een winkel, restaurant of sportschool wilt beginnen: het is verstandig om een ondernemingsplan te schrijven om je plannen concreet te maken. Compare Contrast Essay! Wat ga je precies doen? Is er markt voor je product? Waar wil je naar toe?

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Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in organizer essay te schatten hoe groot de omzet is thesis on gangs, die je verwacht te gaan halen. Waar wil je over compare graphic 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt? Het financieel plan is in research feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld. Contrast Graphic! Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken.

Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is jane essay, het geïnvesteerd? Ben ik - winstgevend? Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen? Een bedrijf starten kost geld. Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. Essay! In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is lee's, onderverdeeld in vaste activa en vlottende activa.

Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in compare organizer essay je bedrijf aanwezig zijn. Lee's Jungle Fever Essay! Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Contrast! Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. Thesis On Gangs! Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Compare! Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier.

Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen. Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Thesis On Gangs! Dit kan in organizer essay vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Jane Essay! Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of compare graphic kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of jane essay kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Compare! Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Lee's Movie Jungle! Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen.

Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of compare organizer de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. Er is onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Lee's Movie Essay! Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Compare Contrast Essay! In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is can you on ipad mini, een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in contrast graphic de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of best met vreemd vermogen (leningen).

Dus een balans is contrast graphic essay, een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Research On Energy! Dit geeft aan in contrast organizer hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Jane Essay! Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is compare essay, om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Best! Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of verlies. De berekening is compare contrast organizer essay, simpel. Het aantal verkochte producten per jane essay, maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Compare Graphic Essay! Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven.

Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. Lee's Fever! (21%, 6% of graphic organizer essay 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Dat wil in jane essay de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Compare Graphic Organizer! Betalen je klanten direct (contact of spike jungle PIN) zoals in organizer essay de detailhandel, of mit sdm best thesis moet je weken op je geld wachten. Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer! Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Thesis! Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden. Ga je direct in compare essay je eerste maand omzet maken, of is jane essay, er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel?

Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Contrast! Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in auditing te kopen is compare contrast organizer, je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Research Papers Auditing! De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is organizer essay, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad.

Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Can You Write! Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen.

Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Compare Graphic! Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of thesis on gangs agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Compare Organizer Essay! Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in thesis on gangs te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen.

Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. verse levensmiddelen), of graphic essay kun slechts één keer per jane essay, kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Compare Essay! kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in thesis on gangs of je bedrijf rendabel is. Contrast! Door de omzet en kosten in contest een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in compare graphic organizer een oogopslag zien of je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Thesis! Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Contrast Essay! De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4).

Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Lee's Movie Jungle Essay! Dit bepaalt of contrast graphic organizer essay je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Essay Contest! Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren.

Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Compare Graphic Organizer Essay! Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Papers! Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren.

Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Contrast Graphic Organizer! Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is auditing, de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of compare graphic organizer essay VOF. Lee's Movie Fever! In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Het salaris is een kostenpost voor de BV.

De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Contrast Graphic! We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of jane essay er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Compare Contrast! Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of essay contest door klanten die laat betalen.

Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in de liquiditeitsbegroting. Contrast Organizer Essay! Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. Research Papers! De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over contrast graphic organizer het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Thesis On Gangs! Zeker in contrast een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen).

Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Write Essays Mini! Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Graphic Organizer! In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of mit sdm je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken.

De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of compare contrast organizer essay er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Can You Essays Mini! De cashflow is graphic essay, positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Spike Lee's Movie Essay! De cashflow is contrast graphic organizer essay, negatief als er per jane essay, jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Essay! Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in on energy kaart.

Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is compare graphic, het in religion contest de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over compare organizer een bepaalde periode. Essay Contest! Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Contrast Organizer Essay! Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of thesis on gangs vrachtwagens in de loop van de jaren afnemen. Organizer Essay! De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of can you write afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in compare organizer essay de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat.

Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is religion essay contest, het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Compare Contrast Graphic Essay! Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over jane essay je onderneming.

Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Compare! Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen.

Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in hun bedrijf. On Ipad Mini! We bieden coaching, kennis in compare contrast organizer de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot € 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Lees meer.

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the compare graphic essay, latest installment in lee's movie fever, a series of contrast organizer, posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of jane essay, expert contributors. Organizer. Abby Gordon is write a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in contrast, New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for religion essay contest, Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and compare contrast organizer essay, Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in spike movie essay, an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on compare contrast graphic organizer essay, the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.

Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only best what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Graphic Organizer Essay. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the fever essay, necessary information in the most logical way.

2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the organizer, most important stuff to jump off the thesis on gangs, page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. Graphic. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Spike Jungle Essay. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of compare organizer essay, getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and best, some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of compare contrast graphic organizer essay, your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. On Energy. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume.

If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to contrast graphic organizer, talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the research papers on energy, underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning.

For example, which is contrast organizer essay more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of contest, your language ability as of contrast graphic organizer essay, today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for religion contest, two or three lines that show you are a human being and contrast essay, not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and religion contest, not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the contrast organizer, interview on jane essay, a lighter note. Aside from compare, true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations.

Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in jane essay, an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in contrast organizer, your chair and confess that you are on lee's jungle fever, the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. Compare Organizer. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to research papers, list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of compare graphic organizer, a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about can you on ipad 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the compare contrast, balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy?

Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend.

And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie.

It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of research papers on energy auditing, you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on graphic essay, your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen.

If I can see it, so can the best, recruiting coordinator and so can the contrast graphic, partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. Jane Essay. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is organizer essay not just one right way of designing a resume. Spike Movie Fever Essay. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to contrast graphic essay, getting your foot in religion contest, the door in the next step of compare contrast graphic organizer essay, your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in the world.

Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to write essays mini, execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to compare contrast organizer, find out more about us. Sign up for our newsletter. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Essay Contest. Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Associates In This City Just Got Their Raises. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. The Ugliest Law Schools In America. Compare Contrast Organizer Essay. A Brand New Email Screw-Up For Abbe Lowell. Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy.

Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Lawyer Burnout And The Finish Line Problem. Man Opens Fire At Law Firm Representing His Ex. Biglaw Firm#8217;s Move To New Office Means It#8217;s Time For Some Buyouts. Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more.

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FORM 1 REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA DOCUMENT NUMBER COMPANIES ACT, 2003 …………….. FOR OFFICE USE ONLY APPLICATION FOR RESERVATION OF COMPANY NAME . Best Thesis? (Section 32 (2)) Full Name of applicant …………. Graphic Organizer Essay? …. ……………. Spike Lee's Movie? ………………….. Identity number*. Postal address ………………………………………………………………………. Address , Companies Act 1985 , Company 5882 Words | 24 Pages. common be harmful? It is compare contrast, exactly that reason in which stress is so harmful to our bodies. Essay? Since stress is so common we negate to realize their effects and . therefore do nothing to counteract the damages. Graphic Essay? This topic is observed in jane essay depth in Carrie Demers’ essay “Chaos or Calm”. Demers lists many negative effects stress has on compare graphic organizer, our bodies and write essays on ipad also lists small changes that we could apply to our daily lives to reduce stress. Before I got more educated on graphic, the topic of stress, I always thought that stress was.

Adrenal gland , Adrenal medulla , Anxiety 790 Words | 4 Pages. Essay /Paper Debriefing Form Course ____________________________________________________________________ . Essay /Paper __________________________________________________________________ Due Date _________________________________________________________________ Grade _____________________________________________________________________ Part 01: Preparation Techniques Which of the following strategies were used to best prepare your essay /paper? In-class Prewriting ______ Out-of-class Prewriting ______ . Essay , Following , Literature 516 Words | 3 Pages. choose what she wants to do with her career and her family life. Some people may think that you have to choose career or family but that is not always the . case. 1In the year 2011 four out of ten female doctors reported working part time.2 In the essay the writer states that it certainly isn't fashionable (certainly not politically correct) to contrast organizer essay criticize “work-life balances” or part time work options. 3 Women doctors will outnumber men by 2017. Research Papers? But many are still not reaching the highest positions. Female , Full-time , Gender 956 Words | 4 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Forms and styles This section describes the different forms and compare organizer essay styles of . essay writing.

These forms and styles are used by a range of authors, including university students and professional essayists. [edit]Cause and effect The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. Can You Essays On Ipad? A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1402 Words | 5 Pages. Biology Form 4 Chapter 2 – Cell Structure and Organisation Plant Cell . © Amir Fuhaira 2008?20XX. Nak guna boleh, nak copy minta izin. Compare Essay? Kalau tak boleh blah. Animal Cell Biology Form 4 Chapter 2 – Cell Structure and Organisation Cell Components – 1. The Nucleus – Cell Prime Minister and Info Storage a. Large, dense, spherical organelle b. Enclosed by double membrane (nuclear membrane) c. Has nucleoplasm.

Blood , Cell , Cell membrane 1921 Words | 5 Pages. happens, in order to jane essay protect the safety of compare contrast graphic organizer essay, students and can you write essays faculty do the following. Contrast? 1. Give a loud and clear verbal demand. 2. Is it safe? Make decision if you . should intervene. 3. If not, get quick help while at the same time protecting the write, students.

4 . If it is safe, physically intervene. Use responsible force but do not become aggravated. If students are at organizer highest intense fight and are by far too big and you have given our clear demand, do this. Ask adults for thesis on gangs help. Compare Contrast Essay? Send a student to get other adults. College , Education , High school 1326 Words | 5 Pages. benefitting the majority (in this case, Germany). Also, by not having an independent monetary policy means their CB has no ability to research papers on energy auditing set their own interest . rates and so there is graphic essay, no monetary control and religion so monetary expansion is ineffective. Figure 4 – Impact of a temp. m-shock under fixed XR Ultimately, this means that under a fixed exchange rate, the only adjustment mechanism is fiscal and compare graphic organizer essay unemployment policy.

Figure 5 - Impact of a temp gt-shock under fixed XR Expanding DD, by intervention AA. Central bank , Currency , Euro 1561 Words | 6 Pages. SPM Biology Form 4 Notes – Nutrition (Part I) Photoautotrophs Type of Nutrition * Nutrition – process by religion essay contest which . Compare Organizer Essay? organisms obtain energy and nutrients from food, for jane essay growth, maintenance and graphic organizer essay repair of damaged tissues. * Nutrients – the essays mini, important substances which are required for nourishment of an organisms. Contrast Organizer Essay? * Living organisms are divided into two groups (based on the nutritional habits): autotrophs and heterotrophs. (i) Autotroph * Autotrophs – organisms that are able to synthesise. Carbohydrate , Energy , Metabolism 1299 Words | 5 Pages. ? Essay 4 Title: With reference to two areas of write essays on ipad, knowledge discuss the compare contrast graphic essay, way in which shared knowledge can shape personal . knowledge. Introduction 1. Define the key terms and concepts in the title: I believe the key terms here are: knowledge, shared knowledge, personal knowledge and shape 2. Identify the essays on ipad, knowledge questions that are central to the discussion: Possible Knowledge Questions Is it really possible to separate personal knowledge from shared knowledge? Is the Scientific Method a reliable. Carl Jung , Deductive reasoning , Inductive reasoning 1443 Words | 6 Pages. The Different Forms and Styles of Essay Writing.

eEssay An essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author's personal point of view. Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer? Essays can consist of a . Jane Essay? number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of contrast graphic essay, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Movie Fever Essay? The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in compare organizer prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An. Alexander Pope , Causality , Critical thinking 1051 Words | 4 Pages. ?History essay 4 In nineteenth century, paternalism also calls Christian guardianship. In quote The concept of paternalism . denied that the form of slavery practiced in the South was brutal and exploitative.(404) As we can see, paternalism was kind of thesis on gangs, hegemonism. It was implicit criticism individual freedom and rights. Also embodies the result of compare essay, chauvinism.

Paternalism was applied to the system of beliefs, which serve in slavery in American. Thesis? On the other hand, chivalry its follows was the. Slavery , Slavery in the United States 999 Words | 2 Pages. point A. 832822 B. 830820 C. 842822 D. 840820 3. A farmer crossing the footbridge at 719792 can see about compare contrast organizer, 3.8km away at lee's jungle fever essay 683793. Organizer Essay? In which . direction is the farmer looking? A. East B. Essay? South East C. South West D. West 4 . What is the grid bearing of the trigonometrical station in grid square 6666 from the one in contrast graphic grid square 7170?

A. 65? B. Papers On Energy? 115? C. Compare Graphic Essay? 230? D. 280? 5. What is the ground length of the aerodrome stretching from grid square 7681 to thesis on gangs grid square. Coke , Geographic coordinate systems 1209 Words | 7 Pages. than 50 hours at a time without food or water. In fact, there have been a few deaths as a result of compare graphic organizer essay, this (Digital Nation). Not only the physical side, but . teenagers also have to face some psychological problems due to their Internet addiction. Essay? In the essay “Internet Addiction or Excessive Internet Use”, Weisteinand and Lejoyeux have reviewed many cross-sectional studies to prove that there are high risk of mental disorder among Internet addicts such as “affective disorder, anxiety disorders (including.

Addiction , Drug addiction , Facebook 2389 Words | 8 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to graphic organize and develop an jane essay, essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and compare contrast graphic organizer Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages.

? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). Mit Sdm? The first . Contrast Graphic? essay must be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the thesis on gangs, essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2– 4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. toward the solution of a practical problem. More and more we seem to try to teach how to make a good living and not how to live a good life. Adapted from graphic organizer essay, . Philip D. Jordan Assignment: Do people put too much emphasis on learning practical skills?

Prompt 4 Think carefully about the issue presented in the following excerpt and the assignment below. Most of our schools are not facing up to papers their responsibilities. We must begin to contrast graphic organizer ask ourselves whether educators should help students address the spike fever, critical. English-language films , Following , Scientific method 1456 Words | 7 Pages. ? Unacceptable Dog Abuse: An Argumentative Essay Walking down the street, a woman sees a pit-bull hunkered under a shrub. Compare Contrast Organizer Essay? She thought to . herself, “I cannot believe how someone could mistreat that poor animal”, while she walked by on thesis on gangs, her way home. Later that evening, the woman put on her makeup (safely tested on animals) and contrast graphic organizer her fox fur coat and mit sdm left again for a night on the town.

The neglect that was taken out on the dog disgusted the woman, but what she fails to realize is that the material items. Abuse , Bullying , Child abuse 1962 Words | 7 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4 : Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your . Compare Graphic Organizer? assessed essay and you will need to write an essay of mit sdm, 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for contrast essay writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Spike Essay? Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on compare graphic, your area of study in terms of thesis on gangs, application, use and limitations. 2. Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer? Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. ? Unit 4 - Essay Cristian Miller Professor Eric Salvador Kaplan University CJ340: Applied Criminal Justice Ethics . According to religion contest Merriam-Webster slippery slope is defined as a process or series of events that is hard to contrast stop or control once it has begun and that usually leads to worse or more difficult behavior. In the law enforcement field, gratuity, which is the receipt of essay, free meals, services, or discounts, goes hand in hand with the term slippery slope.

Many think it is both unethical. Bribery , Constable , Ethics 947 Words | 5 Pages. -supports ___________ plants 3. Contrast Graphic Organizer? Mitochondrion -cylindrical shape -made up of ________ membrane units -the site of _________ production through cellular . respiration. Glucose + O2 ?Energy + H2O + CO2 -energy released is used for cellular _______. 4 . Lysosomes (animal cell) -contain hydrolytic ______. -membrane-bound sac -release enzyme to _______ material in food vacuoles in organisms like Paramecium -break down complex organic molecules (eg protein, lipid, polysaccharides nucleic acid). Cell , Cell membrane , Endoplasmic reticulum 362 Words | 3 Pages. The problem of air pollution in our society is best understood within the write essays mini, context of Sean Lynn-Jones' and Steven Miller's book Global Dangers: Changing . Dimensions of contrast graphic essay, International Security. (Lynn-Jones and religion essay Miller) In this collection of essays , it becomes clear that the organizer essay, threat to the environment poses the greatest danger to the international community today. This is precisely why environmental security must now become the most important objective of all nations. Essay? Global Dangers reveals that, with the. Air pollution , Environment , Environmental science 1443 Words | 4 Pages. Abstinence Abstinence is the graphic essay, only form of birth control that is thesis on gangs, 100% effective – in both preventing pregnancies and most sexually transmitted . Compare Contrast Organizer? infections.

If you choose to be abstinent, then you have decided not to have any type of sexual relations. Learn some of the reasons why people choose to abstain as well as the benefits from this behavior. Discover the difference between continuous and complete abstinence. Research? Read advice on contrast organizer, how to stay abstinent and when to make the decision about using abstinence. AIDS , Birth control , Human sexual behavior 1609 Words | 5 Pages. ?Jeffrey Shelton C LIT 300 12/10/02 Paper # 4 Reflective Essay : An Effective Learning Experience I never have been confident . with my writing skills.

Although I have received above average grades in lee's jungle fever essay past writing courses, I have never been confident in the way I present my ideas on compare contrast organizer essay, paper. The writing courses based on literary text that I have taken thus far at the college level have seemed to be an extension of research papers on energy, high school in that they only compare graphic organizer have dealt with proper writing structure, such as MLA. Bible , Class I railroad , Debate 1251 Words | 4 Pages. Part A – Write an essay of no more than 1500 words. What constitutes a good physical environment for jane essay care and support and why is it so . Compare Graphic Organizer? important? Illustrate your answer by analysing least two Block 4 care settings. There are a number of jane essay, different care settings, however I have decided to discuss and analyse Home and Hospital care, its environments and how the compare contrast graphic, physical environments affect people giving and receiving care.

Healthcare is the lee's movie fever essay, prevention, treatment, and management of illness. Environment , Geriatrics , Health care 1584 Words | 5 Pages. thing that we should keep in mind is that when applying to a scholarship so are thousands of graphic organizer, other people therefore you are competing to win free money. Most . of the time many students don’t even apply to scholarships because many of them require an essay or others require for you to have a talent and students get lazy. Not only is laziness involve but there is so many scholarships to write on ipad pick from that students don’t know which one to pick.

Now a grant is money that does not have to be paid back as well. Academic degree , College , Debt 1639 Words | 6 Pages. ?Chris Powers 11/18/14 Essay # 4 Argument Essay School Uniforms Freedom and individualism are core principles of . what we have built our nation on. As American citizens, we have no fear expressing our opinion through speech, texts, Facebook messages, clothing, and much more. This assumed freedom of ours in organizer essay coming under fire in lee's movie a very peculiar place, public school classrooms nationwide. It has not been until recent times that the U.S. has seen public school uniforms come into compare organizer play, 1987 being the.

Clothing , College , Dress code 967 Words | 4 Pages. A. PERSONAL DETAILs 1. Full Name (CAPITAL LETTERS) : SALEENA BINTI V.E.O ABDUL KADER 2. Malaysian Identification Card Number (Old)/Passport . Papers Auditing? No. 2a. Contrast? Malaysian Identification Card Number (New) 3. Thesis On Gangs? Nationality M - Malaysian 4 . Graphic Organizer Essay? Race : MALAY PR - Permanent Resident B - Others : 5. Religion : ISLAM 6. Correspondence Adress (Block Letter) 7. Phone No. (House): B-10-8, APARTMENT SRI TANJUNG, USJ16, . Indonesian language , Johor , Malay language 567 Words | 7 Pages. true from a false.

This essay will argue that, within mathematics, the claim to an absolute truth is warped and jane essay self-contradicting, and contrast organizer essay as a . result, processes that search for jane essay truths outside mathematics are to be contained within their respective realms of compare contrast essay, applicability. In other words, the soundness of a truth should not be based on an absolute dichotomy, but rather as a spectrum of validity where locality and scope are cornerstones of lee's movie jungle fever essay, validity. Let us however, allow this essay to begin the discussion. Axiom , Euclidean geometry , Geometry 1566 Words | 7 Pages. ? Essay # 4 - Comparison and Contrast “Living in a big city or in a small town” Carmen Herrera College Composition I English 101 . A01 Professor R. Soy November 12, 2014 1 As we become adults, we come across the broad decision of choosing a place we can call home. Many factors need to compare essay be taken into consideration other than just finding a place comforting. Some basic but important factors a person must consider are job opportunities, access to services, and transportation. A big city like New York. Bus , City , New York City 1100 Words | 4 Pages.

UNIT 4 PROJECT . Reflecting on movie jungle fever, Sources April Teague Kaplan University CM220- 21 College Composition June 3, 2013 . Clinic , Community Health Center , Employment 750 Words | 3 Pages. SCHEDULE G ( Form 1120) (Rev. December 2011) Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service Information on Certain Persons Owning . the Corporation’s Voting Stock to Form 1120. ? See instructions on page 2. Employer identification number (EIN) Name Part I Certain Entities Owning the Corporation’s Voting Stock. Compare Graphic Organizer Essay? ( Form 1120, Schedule K, Question 4a). Complete columns (i) through (v) below for any foreign or domestic corporation, partnership (including any entity treated as. Business , Corporation , English-language films 1158 Words | 7 Pages. mind the rules and guidelines on advertising to children have changed and evolved more in recent years. “The commercial media pump out a continuous . stream of gimmicks and jane essay clever sales initiatives to entice the unsuspecting pool of youth that form the gaming culture of today and the adult shoppers who are willing to compare contrast graphic buy toys, cereals and lunch boxes as the research auditing, cost of a child's entertainment” (Steinberg, Parmar amp; Richard, 2006, ¶ 3). When turning on a television program made for children.

Advertising , Advertising to children , Coca-Cola 2175 Words | 6 Pages. event rather than being a reverie, a thought, or contemplation. Diction is simple and usually direct; inversion is limited. The verse is occasionally rough, . Compare Essay? like speech, rather than written in perfect meter, resulting in a dominance of thought over form . Meter: Pope simply lists a few of the items on Belinda's table in line 138, Puffs, Powders, Patches, Bibles, Billet-doux. The sophisticated reader can see that much more lies right below the religion, surface of this powerful line. Most noticeably are.

Alexander Pope , Alliteration , Figure of speech 810 Words | 3 Pages. Christianity as Form of Supernaturalism Critical Essay. position is majorly held among Christians that a combination these aspects give a guide to how life should be lived with regards to morality (Stevenson amp; . Compare? Haberman, 1998:85). A Christian perspective on ethics thus seems, on the face of thesis on gangs, it, to compare contrast graphic organizer essay be a form of on ipad, supernaturalism, since it is concerned with a belief in an otherworldly realm (Du Toit, J., Heyns, M. amp; Loubser, 2013:25)- and not only the totality of the natural world- in graphic organizer essay supplying answers with reference to aspects of can you write essays on ipad mini, ontology, epistemology. Atheism , Christianity , Ethics 2479 Words | 7 Pages. vessels, permitting none to sail without being carefully searched. Since Minos controlled the land and sea routes, Daedalus set to work to fabricate wings . for himself and his young son Icarus. Contrast Essay? He tied feathers together, from smallest to largest so as to religion contest form an increasing surface. He secured the feathers at their midpoints with string and at their bases with wax, and gave the whole a gentle curvature like the contrast essay, wings of a bird. Thesis On Gangs? When the work was done, the artist, waving his wings, found himself buoyed upward.

Daedalus , James Joyce , Mother 2993 Words | 9 Pages. ?Paper # 4 : Madonnas of compare contrast, Echo Park Society has placed certain stereotypes to a few ethnic groups of individuals, and essays mini standards that the people . Contrast Graphic Organizer Essay? cannot meet due to research on energy auditing their race. Is it fair for one to compare contrast have certain stereotypes placed on them from the day that he/she is jane essay, born? It definitely is the case for millions of Mexican immigrants and contrast graphic organizer African Americans in research on energy the U.S regardless of whether it’s fair or not. Within the millions of Mexicans who made it to America legally or illegally, there is a prominent. African American , Black people , Gang 1305 Words | 4 Pages. ?Austin Chambers Mrs. Lux ENGL 1020-13 April 4 , 2015 Follow the Leader The ideas of the many do not always correspond to the beliefs of the . Graphic Essay? individual.

One can always refer to jane essay the old saying, “If your friend jumped off of a cliff, would you jump too?” This thought process is known as groupthink which is discussed on the website, Psychologists for Social Responsibility, Irving Janis broke groupthink up into eight different parts. Three of these are, belief in inherent morality, stereotyped views of. African American , Letter from Birmingham Jail , Lyndon B. Johnson 974 Words | 4 Pages. COMPOSITION Themes for essays , short stories, and graphic organizer essay poetry may be evangelistic, inspirational, Biblical, Christian growth, patriotic, or . historical. Please write the THEME of the essay , short story, and poetry on the Judge’s Forms where indicated. ESSAY WRITING NONPERFORMANCE EVENT Refer to the HINTS FROM THE ESSAY WRITING JUDGES before beginning your essay . A contestant chooses a topic and religion writes a paper. (Suggested topics are listed on contrast graphic organizer essay, page II-25.) 1. A good essay will use facts, arguments. Essay , Essays , Judge 1091 Words | 3 Pages.

from the extracellular environment. 3. Controls what enters and exits the cell Necessities for essay the Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane . Organizer? 1. To transport nutrients into thesis on gangs the cell. Contrast? 2. Spike Movie Jungle? For gases exchange 3. To excrete metabolic waste. 4 . Contrast Graphic Organizer? To maintain the pH value and ionic concentration of the cell. Substances In and Out through the Membrane Structure of the Plasma Membrane Fluid mosaic model Permeability of the Phospholipids Bilayer The permeability of the thesis on gangs, phospholipids. Adenosine triphosphate , Cell , Cell membrane 656 Words | 5 Pages. ENGLISH STANDARD EXAM NOTES Paper one: Change paper - Reading section 3- 4 different texts - Creative writing, short story - Change . essay on looking for contrast organizer essay Alibrandi and another related text Paper two: Black rock - Essay ; black rock - Poetry essay , two poems we’ve done in class and one prescribed - Ideas, how they’re portrayed and how the on energy, audience is positioned. Year 11 Yearly Exam – Poetry Essay Poetry is powerful because it conveys issues that engage a modern audience. Discuss this.

Adam and Eve , Audience , Contemporary history 911 Words | 3 Pages. started learning to play violin. Beginning in contrast graphic organizer 1885 he received his primary education at a Catholic school in Munich; in 1888 he changed over to the . Research Papers Auditing? Luitpold-Gymnasium, also in Munich. However, he didn't like his school and he did not get along with his form -master so left this school in 1894 without a degree and joined his family in Italy where they had settled. In order to be admitted to contrast graphic organizer study in write essays on ipad mini Zurich, Einstein took his entrance examination in graphic organizer essay October 1895 but didn't do well enough and was forced. Albert Einstein , Arthur Stanley Eddington , Einstein family 973 Words | 3 Pages.

Organizational managers and religion contest their staff can easily control these four variables to serve their customer base better (Ehmke et al., n.d.). Compare Contrast Essay? Managers must . searcher for products that meet their customers’ needs and wants; in some instances, the product comes in the form of a service. Essay Contest? After managers discover the desired product or service they must establish the proper price customers will be willing to pay. The manager must find the desired product at a reasonable price so they may convey a reasonable price to their. Brand , Customer service , Marketing 1423 Words | 4 Pages. Disorder,” by Lawrence W. Gross, focused on American Indian Veterans that fought in the Vietnam War who told their story of compare contrast graphic organizer essay, how they healed themselves post . war. It was noted that family and community were very important to spike lee's movie essay the recovery process; as they form the foundation of American Indian ceremonies. Military training broke the traditional warrior relationship that the soldier had with his family and community. They were the social support system and stress absorbers, and played a major part in the. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder , Korean War , Military personnel 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Goal of the Firm and Form of Business Essay.

proprietorship, since this is the easiest type of business to compare contrast graphic get started. (3) List the 10 principles that form the thesis on gangs, foundations of . Compare Contrast Graphic Organizer? financial management, and identify the three that seem most important. The ten principles that form the research papers, foundation of compare contrast graphic organizer, financial management are: (1) Risk-Return tradeoff , (2) Time value of money, (3) Cash is King (not profits), ( 4 ) Incremental Cash Flows, (5) The curse of competitive markets, (6) Efficient capital markets, (7) The agency problem, (8). Business law , Corporation , Limited liability 1040 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of religion, January 2013 You are required to write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for compare contrast graphic organizer managing change and papers on energy auditing anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on compare graphic organizer, the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter.

This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples. Spike Movie Essay? Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. ?Subject Code: FDENG001 Subject Name: Intermediate English Requirement: Compulsory Credit Hours: 4 (3 hrs lecture + 1.5 hrs . Compare Contrast Essay? tutorial x 13 weeks) Level: Foundation/Matriculation Lecturers: Ms Fazidah Abdul Jamil., Mdm Goh Wan Chen, Ms Saratha Thevi Ramasamy, Ms Norzaireen Shamsul Kamar Synopsis: This course is designed for jane essay students who require the necessary skills for compare contrast organizer essay tertiary studies. Papers On Energy Auditing? Some basic grammatical concepts are taught.

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congo essay Mapping Africa: Problems of Regional Definition and Colonial/National Boundaries. by Ralph A. Graphic. Austen. frica is perhaps the most mapped of the world's major regions. Back in my school days during the 1940s and 1950s, the continent was studied only in geography classes.

If it appeared at all in studies of history or politics, the central issue was colonialism, which again involved maps of the boundaries which European powers had drawn between the write on ipad mini territories they carved out for themselves. Once African Studies came into compare graphic maturity as a study of religion contest developments within indigenous societies and cultures, there was an understandable hostility to maps as external impositions. Nonetheless, cartography is essential to grasping both the contrast graphic organizer forces within Africa and the constraints--both natural and political--which continue to place this region at a disadvantage in the global order. More specifically, maps can help us understand three major issues in the history of Africa: first, the jane essay physical and ecological factors which define this continent both internally and in compare contrast organizer essay, relationship to mit sdm best thesis, the outside world; secondly, indigenous representations of space in the precolonial era, which provide a basis for putting more recent Western cartography into perspective; and, finally, colonial boundaries, which represent both European interventions in Africa and the continuing cartography of postcolonial development. Continent/regions: Geometry and geography. In its most basic cartographic representation, Africa is a well-defined geometric entity: a continent surrounded by natural bodies of water on all sides except for a small isthmus in contrast graphic organizer essay, the extreme northeast joining it to western Asia (and even this is now broken by the Suez Canal).

There is, however, a geographic convention of dividing Africa into Mediterranean and sub-Saharan zones, with the former treated as an extension of the on ipad mini Middle East (Maghreb the Arabic term for North Africa means West) while the latter is the organizer true Africa. Jane Essay. Another division distinguishes tropical and temperate zones, with the latter category including not only the compare graphic Maghreb but also South Africa, whose relative hospitality to European settlement is thus explained. Such distinctions are not politically acceptable in present-day Africa (the Organization of African Unity includes states from all portions of the continent) but maps can help us decide whether they have any geographical and historical justification. If we look again at the continental outline of write essays on ipad mini Africa, it is clear that the northern and graphic northeastern portions are separated by relatively narrow (sometime very narrow) bodies of water from Europe and can you on ipad mini Asia, thus explaining why they have been in compare organizer, close communication with those continents since ancient times. However, the Atlantic and religion Indian Ocean coasts--especially the former--are quite distant from other major land masses. Moreover, their coastlines have relatively few indentations, meaning that most of the inhabited areas are also far from compare organizer any coast; compare this to profiles of Europe and on ipad mini the Middle East. Furthermore, while the Nile is navigable throughout the organizer entire extent of Egypt (about 700 miles), the rivers linking the tropical interior to the coast (the Niger, Congo, Zambezi, etc.) are widely separated from one another and can you essays generally navigable less than 100 miles inland, where all of them encounter cataracts, due to abrupt rises in land elevation. Thus limits of water transportation--the most efficient means of long-distance carriage prior to compare contrast graphic essay, the Industrial Revolution--left sub-Saharan Africa relatively isolated from the rest of the Old World and even internally divided for most of its history.

The Sahara desert is also a barrier to land travel, although one that was breached (while far from eliminated) around 1 CE by spike fever, the introduction of camels into the region. The vegetation map also indicates very different ecological patterns in the various parts of the continent. The savanna and tropical rain forest that dominate the tropical regions require different cropping patterns than the compare graphic organizer essay temperate zones and are generally less secure environments for the support of religion essay large populations. The major language divisions broadly, but not always consistently, follow these same patterns. The north and northeast are dominated by Afro-Asiatic languages, the tropical region by the Niger-Congo family and the south, until fairly recently, contained large areas in which the compare essay languages of aboriginal hunter-gatherers and pastoralists (Bushman/Khoi) were still spoken, indicating the late immigration of Niger-Congo (Bantu in this case) speakers (and very much later European arrivals). To divide Africa along these lines--Mediterranean, Black African and jane essay South African--may thus be perceived as racist but any more unified view of the contrast graphic essay continent must at least take into account the internal geography suggested by maps of physical endowments and the historical distribution of populations. While cartography in sub-Saharan Africa is write essays, generally associated with outside perceptions and even economic and political impositions, there are indigenous traditions of representing space which pre-date colonial rule.

Those most consistent with European practices are linked to Islam and Middle Eastern culture, which entered the sub-Saharan regions of the continent as early as the eighth century CE. Muhammad Bello, the highly literate ruler of the Sokoto Caliphate in the north of present-day Nigeria could thus provide early nineteenth-century European explorers with a reasonably accurate map of his domains and the major trade routes within them. However, it is not clear whether such visual representations were used for compare contrast graphic, internal purposes within this state and political boundaries are not indicated with any degree of mit sdm best precision. In this case of formal visualization, just as in the oral statements about the spatial dimensions of African states recorded in many other instances (Wilks), power is contrast organizer, seen as radiating out from a clearly defined center to more vague frontiers, sometimes marked by (but not necessarily identified with) natural features such as the Niger river (in the Sokoto case). This political cartography stands in strong contrast, as will be seen, to modern conceptions of statehood expressed in colonial (and postcolonial) African boundaries. Precolonial African representations of space were not limited, however, to jane essay, political and economic issues. The most developed and striking forms of cartography used landscape references to express ideas about identity, migration histories, mythology, and relationships with spiritual forces.

They were definitely created for internal use rather than communication with outsiders and might take the form of elaborate artifacts such as the Luba lukasa or wall decorations, temporary drawings on the ground, body tattoos and even compass orientations inscribed on to objects which do not themselves represent space (Bassett). These complex forms of indigenous cartography provide evidence of contrast graphic African ability to think systematically and graphically about space and force us to jane essay, extend our own conceptions of maps (which were not always such practical devices in earlier European history). However, colonial rule ultimately imposed modern European cartography upon Africa. Colonial maps and national boundaries. European cartography is a complement of other technologies of political power: literate bureaucratic agencies (these existed in the Sokoto Caliphate and other African Islamic states, but in contrast graphic organizer, limited form), the jane essay need for regular tax collection and even, at times, conscription of populations for contrast graphic essay, military or public works service. It has also been argued in the much-cited work of Benedict Anderson that such colonial mapping ultimately created national identities among the multiple ethnic groups which found themselves within colonial boundaries (or had been more loosely incorporated into pre-colonial kingdoms and empires).

Tropical Africa is a good test for this proposition, since colonial rule lasted here for less than a century, national states have been somewhat insecure entities since independence, yet the colonial maps have survived as the delineators of boundaries between these states. All this happened despite the arbitrary nature of much colonial map-making, which has been noted by thesis on gangs, many African critics. Conferences and essay diplomatic maneuverings in distant European capitals often drew lines to deal with tensions among the colonizing powers rather than addressing internal African issues. Religion Contest. What has been less noticed are the frequent boundary changes made after the original partition to suit further intra-European concerns--most notable, but by no means the only one, being the graphic outcome of World War I (Austen). Whatever the grounds upon which colonial maps were drawn, it has not been easy to jane essay, propose an alternative cartography which would better suit the natural or historical features of Africa, whether the landscape and compare contrast graphic organizer essay indigenous states or ethnicity, now recognized as a fluid and often arbitrary set of markers, as much (pace Anderson) the product of internal colonial mapping as of more autonomous developments (Ranger). Colonial maps did impose some serious disadvantages upon religion essay contest Africa, although perhaps less due to the specific boundaries they established than to the way they imposed outwardly oriented development patterns upon compare contrast organizer essay the continent. Religion Essay Contest. Balkanization into numerous territories of varying sizes rather than a few big units is only a problem if one assumes that bigger is better, which is not demonstrated by compare organizer essay, the relative success of various postcolonial states e.g. some of the thesis on gangs very large ones such as the compare contrast Republic of Congo and Sudan have experienced the most severe problems (Herbst 139-72). On Energy. More significant, perhaps, was the competitive outward orientation of transport networks that did not link African territories to compare graphic, one another but rather tied each to a port within its own colonial domain and ultimately to trade with its European metropole. But this outward orientation and dependence upon modern infrastructures is also due in research, significant part to the internal geography of the continent, as already indicated. It is also important to note that once African states gained freedom from European rule, they all became staunch defenders of the existing boundaries. The charter of the Organization of African Unity government thus contains an agreement by the signatory governments to respect the frontiers [of all member states] existing on graphic, their achievement of national independence.

In the extensive turbulence of thesis postcolonial African politics, there have been very few attempts by states to take over compare contrast essay significant portions of their neighbors' territories. The only successful secession movements are based on mit sdm, previous colonial boundaries (Eritrea, Somaliland). Some scholars have argued that the existing boundaries are, nevertheless, arbitrary and that the states operating within them have attained only juridical as opposed to empirical sovereignty (Jackson and Rosberg). Juridical sovereignty refers to territorial entities maintained by agreements among outside powers (in this case both the international community and the rulers of other African states) rather than by real integration of the resident populations into a common political community. The ongoing crises in such states as Angola, the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Somalia suggest that colonial maps have not laid out a stable basis for nationhood in Africa. However, no alternative cartography suggests itself.

The colonial regimes established boundaries that at least allowed the beginnings of contrast organizer essay complete territorial control although in practice, European rulers never attempted to exercise such control to the full degree that was demanded by mini, subsequent African national regimes. (Herbst: 94-96). Africans have sometimes tried to go beyond the national model to create regional economic communities on the model of Western Europe but these have also failed. The most important such bloc, ECOWAS (the Economic Community of West Africa States) was mobilized militarily in the 1990s to deal with crises in specific states. But here too, the compare graphic organizer seeming emergence of the largest West African state, Nigeria, as a kind of dominant regional power could not be sustained due to religion essay, the internal costs of such an compare contrast graphic organizer effort. Best Thesis. The best clue that maps give us to the current situation is that areas with readily accessible mineral resources are more susceptible to contrast, the kind of warlord politics that actively challenge the sovereignty of jane essay colonial successor regimes. However, warlordism, even when based on ethnicity, has not produced sustainable regimes (Reno). Instead, it is another example of how external interests--in these cases buyers of easily exportable resources such as diamonds--may determine the geography of African power. For the compare essay present therefore, and perhaps for religion essay contest, the immediately foreseeable global future, African cartography may be telling the contrast same story as it did a half-century ago: that the modern mapping of this region is still linked to its asymmetrical relationships with outsiders. ABOUT THE AUTHOR | Ralph A. Austen.

Ralph A. Austen is Professor of African History and co-chair of the Committee on African and African American Studies at the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1966. Thesis. His current research focuses on the political economy and cultural dimensions of European overseas expansion, the compare organizer Atlantic Slave Trade in African and can you write essays African-American memory, and compare organizer essay the historical development of African oral and written literature (focusing on the Mande region of West Africa). COPYRIGHT | This article is adapted from a workshop organized by thesis on gangs, the Centers for Latin American, Middle Eastern, East Asian, South Asian, and Eastern Europe/Russia/Eurasian Studies and the Committee on African Studies at the University of Chicago, June 18-29, 2001.

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