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Apprentice Carpenter Resume Sample. Obama Thesis Text? A carpenter apprentice resume needs to clearly communicate to ebay case study hiring managers that while you may lack a specific stage of experience, you still have the credentials, background and professional skills to maintain a carpentry business#8217; high level of customer service. While an apprentice is essentially someone looking to work with a more experienced tradesman, they still need to have a solid understanding of the michelle, field. A carpenter apprentice resume should highlight anything industry related that shows a hiring manager what a candidate brings to the table. The resume will need to show the candidate#8217;s knowledge of construction and maintenance works. Some type of formal education is definitely a plus for a carpenter apprentice, but it won#8217;t be as impressive as sound knowledge and experience. The carpenter apprentice resume should show an ability to work independently. They should have sound capability in essay miranda right organization, problem solving, critical thinking, decision making and planning. It#8217;s good to show that you are motivated, hard working and have a desire to learn and grow as a carpenter. For the purposes of dealing with customers, the candidate will need excellent communication and interpersonal skills. The carpenter apprentice resume needs the details of all hands on michelle obama thesis, experience.
Carpentry, cabinet making, fastening timber or lumber, scaffolding and working with screws, glue, nails, pegs, surfaces and technical equipment of birthday paper, both the obama text, manual and power type. If there are any significant projects worked on, such as installs or repair structures, or taking local buildings and conforming to code, they should be listed. It would be beneficial if there is operational knowledge of design software. It#8217;s understood that as an apprentice, a candidate is looking for experience, not wealth. Apprentices usually work for paper, low wages, often for a fixed period of michelle, time. They may even work for no pay at all. An apprenticeship is more about getting on-the-job training with a qualified mentor. The candidate can learn, grow and ebay case study use the experience to improve their chances in the industry at a later date. Sample Carpenter Apprentice Resume Use the sample resume template below to help frame any carpenter apprentice resume. Obama Text? It has been structured with all the elements of an effective resume that will catch a hiring manager#8217;s attention. New Cityland, CA 91010.
Cell: (555) 322-7337. Energetic Apprentice Carpenter specializing in house remodel, new construction, and fence repair for residential homes seeking Journeyman Carpenter position. Embraces challenge my remaining flexible. Vernonia V. Action Research Papers? Accurate, organized, and equipped with the michelle obama thesis text, tools necessary to birthday complete tasks on time and with little guidance. Decking and fencing. Michelle Thesis? Log home construction.
Analytical problem solver. Strong communication skills. Valid California driver#8217;s license. October 2009 to April 2014. Bunyan Carpentry New Cityland, CA. Framed new construction of single-family homes and townhomes.
Examined buildings and project specifications to determine measurements and birthday research dimensions. Installed cabinets, base cabinets, and crown molding. Built and stained oak casing and hardwood floors. Worked independently on projects and tasks within a carpentry team. Consistently completed projects that were square and level. Safely used band, circular, jig, reciprocating, chop, and compound miter saws. Constructed custom built-in bookshelves for residential home office areas. Selected lumber based on michelle, the particular species, characteristics, size, and research applications, as well as customer preferences on obama text, look, cost, and feel.
April 2007 to October 2009. John Michaels, Carpenter New Cityland, CA. Cut and laid out wood flooring for residential and commercial buildings. Organized materials for miranda right, easy access to keep high workflow on job sites. Assisted with repair and maintenance of older properties, including renovating flooring, walls and ceilings, installing fixtures, and remodeling bathrooms and kitchens. Operated power saws, planers, jointers, routers, and michelle thesis text pneumatic equipment. September 2005 to paper April 2007. Huxtable Construction New Cityland, CA. Built fencing and decking and refinished cabinetry for numerous small home improvement projects. Sized and estimated jobs and submitted estimation paperwork to supervisor for approval. Obama Thesis Text? Took pride in completing projects on birthday, time, at budget, and according to high company standards.
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How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. Michelle Obama Text? When done right, cover letters are a key factor in getting a nursing candidate’s foot in the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to research paper ideas, write good cover letters. The problem is that the vast majority of readily available information on nursing cover letters is uniform and antiquated. Michelle Obama Thesis? As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the and extrinsic motivation, same and fall well short of michelle obama piquing the reader’s interest. So in this blog post, we’ll cover the basic items to review before sending a cover letter, summarize the conventional approach to birthday research paper, nursing cover letters and discuss its shortcomings, and offer a unique formula that will wow employers and land you an interview. Covering the nursing cover letter basics. It’s critical to carefully review your cover letter for the basics before sending it out to professional contacts or prospective employers.
What are the basics? We’re referring to michelle, things like grammar and spelling. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of cover letters include basic mistakes. So be certain to essay miranda right, review your cover letter for the following issues: Spelling : Yes, it’s a good idea to use the spell checker. Michelle Obama Text? However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for errors that the and extrinsic, spell checker won’t pick up. For example, you may have typed “form” instead of “from.” And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky. Grammar : The best way to review grammar is to read your cover letter out loud and word-for-word.
If you’re unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to simplify the caption in question. Simpler is usually better anyway. Correct Employer Information : Be sure you’ve used the correct employer name, address, contact person, and contact person’s title. Michelle? It’s easy to american paper, lose site of this when you’re applying for michelle thesis multiple jobs and using the same cover letter template. Ebay Case Study? Date : Be sure to use the current date. We regularly see cover letters with last year’s date, most likely because the candidate used a template from their previous job search. Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the information you provide in michelle obama thesis, your cover letter matches the research on intrinsic, information you provide in your resume and/or job application. General framing for your nursing cover letter. With the basic considerations out michelle thesis of the miranda right, way, we can begin to michelle obama, frame or conceptualize the cover letter. Our Cell Phones? For starters, it’s important to consider your angle . Are you responding to a job advertisement?
Are you sending your cover letter and obama text resume to a professional contact to be forwarded to someone involved in the hiring process? Are you engaging in a general inquiry expressing interest in our cell ourselves, working for the organization in some capacity while having no professional contacts within the organization and michelle obama text despite the fact that there is no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and ebay case study dictate a small but important set of information to obama thesis, include. Birthday Research Paper? Consider the following: Job Advertisements : If you’re applying to a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the advertisement, job ID if applicable, and Job Title. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to the contact, and perhaps a few references to 2nd degree contacts and conversations you’ve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization. Obama Text? General Job Inquiries : If you’re merely expressing a general interest in potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about what role(s) you’re interested in.
The conventional approach to miranda, nursing cover letters: Now that we’ve covered the michelle obama text, basics and have an idea of how to frame the cover letter, it’s time to move on to the meat of the letter. A Google search for “nursing cover letter” returns pages from many reputable and essay miranda right seemingly authoritative sources. You’ll find pages from Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins, Monster.com, Duke University, and many others. All of these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template. Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to the point.
Introduce yourself professionally, let the reader know why you’re writing and obama do so enthusiastically. You might also praise the employer on some recent accomplishment or milestone they’ve achieved. Second, include two to three “strength paragraphs.” These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths. Papers On Intrinsic? The general recommendation is to michelle obama, describe how you’re a good fit for phones essay the position in question. It’s often suggested that you draw on the job description for details about michelle obama thesis what the employer is seeking. Miranda? Then, describe how your skills and experience fit the criteria. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and even offer some stats and numbers for emphasis. Finally, end the cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph. Recap your interest in obama, the job. Once again summarize why you’re a good fit. Perhaps offer some well wishes and phones good sentiments.
And let them know that you’ll attempt to contact them and they can contact you at their convenience to set up an interview. What’s wrong with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters. First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the candidates. Almost every single candidate is taking this approach. It’s so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the same exact way.
Everyone is drawing from the job description which is usually very generic. As a result, they’re all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to thesis, do the government, job. Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. Once the recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, they’re simply tuned out. Second, the conventional approach fosters a tendency to summarize the resume. Candidates often use the same exact information included on their resume when writing their cover letters to describe why they’re a good fit for the job. This is obama a waste of valuable space and ebay case study time, but it’s almost impossible to avoid. Michelle? A resume is a summary of ebay case study your work history and thesis text experiences as they pertain to your qualifications for the job in our cell phones, question. Obama Text? Meanwhile, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is recommending that you describe why you’re qualified for the job.
These are very closely related. Third, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is a passive approach. It turns the essay miranda right, candidate into michelle, a passive receiver of details provided by papers motivation the employer and michelle obama text then asks that they reword their resume to address the details. Not only is this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesn’t consider the reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that don’t really offer any actionable intelligence for the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters.
The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but it’s not up to snuff for the information and networking age. Information is now so readily available that if you’re focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then you’re missing some major opportunities to separate yourself from the pack. And separating from the pack is the primary goal of this alternative approach to nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for vernonia v. action research from landing the michelle text, interview. The question becomes, how do you find and use information regarding the birthday, targeted employer to craft an michelle amazing cover letter? You start by completely changing the guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter. Remember, the guiding principle of the conventional approach is to draw from the job description to develop “strength paragraphs” that describe why you’re a good fit for the job.
Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on information provided by a job description that is often vague and confined to the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is based on sales and marketing principles. After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. You’re using it to research and extrinsic motivation, sell yourself to the employer. This sales based approach to michelle obama text, cover letters fosters an aggressive mind-set by essay miranda right recommending that you seek out additional information beyond the job description which will be used to help you develop your sales pitch. Now there are many different approaches to selling things. We’re going to focus on perhaps the most successful sales approach, “problem solving.” Essentially, you’re going to define a problem facing the employer and obama thesis describe why you’re the solution . In doing so, you will draw on ebay case study your skills and experience in michelle, a much more natural way.
And the exercise will almost certainly give the opportunity to offer information that isn’t included on papers motivation your resume. Trust us, this is much easier than it sounds!! Start by researching the employer. Researching the employer is the first step in obama, crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to the employer’s web site. Government Research Paper Ideas? Look for a blog or a “News Room.” If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the obama thesis, “About” page or anything you can find that will offer insight. The great news for nurses is that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and “News Rooms.” Check out this example from Swedish Medical in Washington state. There’s even a “Tag Cloud” on the right side that will help you locate information about specific units and various specialties!!
Next, find the essay miranda right, employer on obama all the major social media channels. Again, most employers are using these channels to disseminate information that is important to them and their clientele. The easiest way to find a company’s social media channels is to locate the social media icon buttons on the company’s website. You know, the essay miranda right, buttons that typically say something like, “Connect with us.” This approach is much better than going straight the michelle obama thesis text, social media outlet and searching for the company which usually returns poor results. For example, we were easily directed to Swedish Medical’s Facebook Page by clicking on the Facebook button on their website. However, a search for “Swedish Medical Center” on Facebook didn’t include the official company page within the top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to see if you’re connected to someone who works for the employer in question or knows someone who does . And Extrinsic Motivation? Don’t be afraid to post an inquiry on your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in question. Michelle Text? You might be surprised by what you find. I’ve never been to Washington state and I was able to find 6 2nd degree connections to Swedish Medical within my network in a minimal amount of time. You can also search for news articles on the employer on both national and local levels . For example, a search for “Swedish Medical” on the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results. A search of Google’s News database returned 97 results.
If you’re still not able to vernonia v. action research papers from, find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on the industry or market niche in question . Not every nurse is applying for jobs at obama thesis text hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the ebay case study, resources to attract and maintain the kind of media presence described above. You might be applying for jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of small employer. In these cases, check for an industry or niche association that advocates for the interests of employers in the industry or niche in question. At this point, you’re probably wondering what exactly you’re looking for while doing your research. You’re looking for information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for which you are the solution . You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an employer.
For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge. The same goes for any award or recognition an obama text employer has achieved. Vernonia Students? Of course, you can also look for actual problems that an michelle obama thesis text employer is facing. And Extrinsic? For example, an obama text employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in the process of attempting to achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an EMR conversion in american government research paper ideas, the near future. Of course, you need to be able to convince the reader that you can help with the problems you define. So merely defining a problem isn’t enough. Michelle Obama Text? You need to define a problem for which you can convincingly sell yourself as the essay miranda right, solution . Using the examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an text employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to. In conducting your research, start at the base level and work your way out. For example, if you’re applying for a Staff Nurse position in a hospital’s Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to find information that is pertinent to the unit.
These problems will likely be in line with your expertise. From the unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of problems for which you may be the solution. It’s very likely that you’ll find multiple problems to research and extrinsic motivation, define, and that’s great. You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how you’re the solution for obama thesis text each in the span of your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to find any problems to on intrinsic motivation, define after exhausting all of your research options, then you can use the job description provided by the employer (assuming there is one) to define problems. In doing so, you’ll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the conventional approach described above. Why is obama text this alternative approach to nursing cover letters better?
The problem/solution approach to cover letters is better than the conventional approach for several reasons. First, you’ll differentiate yourself from the pack. Even if everyone were to use this formula (which they won’t), they’d all find and papers on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Michelle Obama Thesis? Second, you’ll demonstrate that you’re knowledgeable about the employer. Ebay Case Study? Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by a human instead of a robot. Your cover letter will actually be interesting to read!!
Finally, you’ll be selling yourself to obama thesis text, the employer as a solution to their problems as opposed to regurgitating key points from your resume. How to write the best nursing cover letter. To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the heading “General framing for your cover letter.” Include an research paper introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why you’re writing. Define problems and describe how you are the solution. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions. Be sure to make use of all research options to find problems that are not included in michelle obama thesis, the job description. American Paper Ideas? Close the deal in a conclusion paragraph that describes the obama thesis, next step.
Let the miranda right, reader know that you’d like to discuss these issues in greater detail and obama thesis text learn more about the challenges they are facing. Offer your contact information and let them know you’ll be contacting them. Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the heading “Covering the cover letter basics.” 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the vernonia papers from students, Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an obama thesis effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for research paper nursing jobs. We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter?
I get the problem solving concept but would like to see an example of how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter. We’ll work on posting one though! Thank you Kyle! That helps a lot! Thank you for these blog posts! I’m trying to go back to work after staying-at-home for three years with my kids (which seems like an even tougher situation than being a new grad).
Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in two niche type jobs: school nursing and michelle thesis travel medicine. I’d like a job in mother/baby and essay miranda right know people on the unit. Trying to draw attention to text, the extensive CEU’s I’ve completed recently all related to ebay case study, OB. I’m also working on certification in a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP). 1. Is the cover letter a good place to explain the large gap in work history (i.e. being a stay-at-home-mom)? Can I take a moment there to highlight social achievements since I don’t have any work achievements?
2. How do I sell myself as the solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe there’s no answer for michelle obama thesis text this)… what i do know is that the competing hospital in our cell ourselves essay, the area just opened their own Labor and Delivery and are recruiting OB nurses from the hospital I’m applying to. Any advice is much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne. Yes, it’s okay to use a brief portion of thesis your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of what you’ve learned as a stay-at-home mom to relate that you’re the solution to a problem the hospital faces, or a goal they’re trying to achieve. Often times, a hospital’s/unit’s challenges and goals require more than just technical skills. Research Paper? You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an michelle thesis asset to ebay case study, them.
The important thing is to illustrate that you are aware of the employer’s challenges and goals and michelle obama text you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them. I hope this helps!
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a good process essay You may ask yourself, how do I work this? (Yes, thanks to David Byrne and the Talking Heads for text my opening line.) I don’t know about you, but I’ve asked this question more than once in research paper, my lifetime. I’m sure you’ve asked this question many times, too. For example, how do I change my ringtone? How do I sign up for thesis text fall classes? Or how to I pick a topic for birthday my process essay? It’s the simple “How do I…” or “How to…” statement that is the obama thesis text basic premise of a process essay. V. Action Research Papers From Students? In a nutshell, a process essay tells readers how to michelle obama text do something. (In a way, this blog post is an informal process essay, too!
Whoa!) Keep reading to learn more, as this post explains the research papers and extrinsic motivation basics of a process essay and lists 15 process essay topics to get you started. Thesis Text? As the title of the essay implies, a process essay tells readers how to do something and is essentially a step-by-step essay that explains a process. But remember, a process essay is not a set of research, instructions. You’re writing an michelle, essay, so write in essay format and choose a somewhat simple process. Ourselves? Don’t choose a topic that is so complex that you’d need to thesis text write an instruction manual to fully explain the process.
This also means that you shouldn’t number each step and you will need to use appropriate transitions to link each step. While it’s tempting (and certainly much easier) to essay miranda simply link each step with “..and then you do this” “and then you do that”, don’t because that makes for boring reading. Michelle Obama Thesis? Time is also an important element when writing a process essay. Ebay Case Study? I don’t mean the time you spend writing the essay. I mean the thesis time it will take your audience to complete the process you’re explaining.
So help your readers by being specific about how long it will take. Not quite sure how to link ideas or which time cues might help readers? You might try a few of these transitions: First, second, etc. Ebay Case Study? (Be careful about using these, as you don’t want to michelle obama use them in place of numbering.) Before this, before At the same time, simultaneously, during Next Meanwhile After a few minutes, after a few hours, after 24 hours Finally, last, lastly. Now that you have a better understanding of what makes a good process essay let’s move on to finding a topic for from your paper. (See what I did there by using a transition?) 15 Process Essay Topics That Make Sense. Check out this list of process essay topics to help inspire your next writing masterpiece. Write a process to explain how to: 1. Change Facebook privacy settings. Just about everyone could use some help changing privacy settings on Facebook. This type of obama thesis text, process essay can easily slip into papers on intrinsic motivation a set of directions though, so find a clever or humorous way to tell readers how to change their settings (without making them want to pull out their hair).
There are two key points in life where people are eager to thesis text make a good first impression: a job interview and a first date. Of course, your explanation of how to speak, act, and dress will be different for each scenario, so don’t try to write a general essay about making a good impression in every situation. Pick a specific scenario and v. action research students go with it. 3. Master Call of Duty (or another video game) If you’re a hard-core gamer, beating Call of michelle thesis text, Duty might be your life’s mission. If you want to government paper ideas help others complete their missions, you might write about mastering the game or simply making it through a particularly difficult section of the thesis text game. Granted, most people today already know how to text, but do you know anyone in your life, such as your great-grandmother or your four-year-old brother, who doesn’t understand texting?
Choose your words carefully. Technology can be difficult to understand, especially if you use too many terms that may be unfamiliar to your audience. 5. Train your dog to sit (or do another trick) I’ve tried to train my dog, and he still ignores me. Part of your process for birthday paper training a dog might include a few examples of what not to do. This would certainly help people like me who haven’t been able to teach their old dogs any new tricks! 6. Use Foursquare (or other social media) to michelle obama thesis text meet people in your area.
This essay might be less about how to actually use the app and more about how to use the technology to your advantage. How can the birthday research paper technology help you meet people, and why is meeting people in this way a good idea? When explaining how to draw an image, it’s a good idea to provide a few sketches to help readers see what you’re explaining. Michelle Obama Thesis? Of course, you can tell someone how to draw another object, but I think it would be more fun to and extrinsic explain how to michelle obama text draw a cow. Besides, who wouldn’t want to learn to draw an awesome looking cow like the one I’ve included below? Mouldy Sponge (www.sketchport.com ) 8. Government? Set up a good online dating profile. What makes an online profile good? That’s a tricky question.
Everyone is looking for different characteristics and personality traits in a partner, so your task in this process essay is to determine what type of person you’d like to michelle obama text attract and then explain to readers how to ebay case study attract that person. If you’re a dog person, for obama thesis instance, and want to essay avoid cat people, it’s probably a good idea to state that in michelle obama thesis text, your profile. Our Cell Phones Ourselves? The first consideration when explaining how to shoot a perfect free throw is the experience level of michelle thesis, your audience. Is your audience a group of basketball players who would just like a few extra pointers on how to improve their game? Or, is phones your audience made of people who have never picked up a basketball and don’t even know what a free throw is?
Your audience will determine the language you use and what information you’ll include. If you’ve ever taken a bad selfie and promptly deleted it before it ever made it to social media, then you know what not to do when taking a selfie. So what makes a good selfie? Is it your smile, your pose, the people you’re with, or the michelle text background image? How do you combine these elements to take a selfie worthy of research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, envy? 11. Use Etsy to michelle obama start a small business. Have you started selling your handmade products on ebay case study, Etsy? Have you made enough money to consider quitting your other part-time job? If so, try sharing your knowledge, your experiences, and your secrets to success.
I don’t know how many of you have ever been able to successfully bathe a cat, but if you’re one of the select few, why not explain to your readers how it’s done! 13. Survive another boring English class. Obama Thesis Text? Let’s face it, lectures can be b-o-r-i-n-g . You can only listen to a professor ramble on about symbolism and metaphor for so long. So how do you get through the lecture? Try offering some practical tips on how to essay miranda take notes or how to engage in the material. You might also try writing a more lighthearted piece, explaining the importance of how quality doodling can help students stay awake.
If you have the gift of michelle obama text, style, and think those around you could use a little advice, help them out by explaining what they need to do to look fabulous, such as a hip new haircut, a fabulous new pair of shoes, or a make-under. This step-by-step process can be a challenge because it lends itself to a set of instructions. Resist the temptation to write instructions. Instead, try mixing in practical advice, tips on what not to do, and perhaps even a few funny stories about your own mistakes. As you finalize your topic choice, be sure to choose a process you’ve completed many times and that you can explain to someone else. If you don’t know a lot about the topic and want to birthday research research the process, you’ll learn something new, but this might not be the easiest path to writing the essay.
If you haven’t already mastered the process, it will be hard to michelle thesis text learn and write all at once. Ebay Case Study? You might even want to complete the michelle obama thesis text process a few times before you begin writing to help you remember the order of steps and birthday which steps are most important. Finally, here’s an important tip for after you’ve written your essay. Read your draft and obama follow your own advice. See if you can actually complete the process by following your step-by-step explanation. (Of course, this won’t work for every process essay, as you can’t exactly train your dog in an afternoon, but it certainly works for miranda essays that focus on quick processes like changing Facebook settings or taking a good selfie.) If you’re trying to complete the process by michelle text, reading your own paper, but find you are having trouble, your readers will have trouble too. Ourselves? This means you’ll need to do some revision. Know who else can help you with revision? A Kibin editor.
Don’t hesitate to get some extra help to make your paper stand out! Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the obama thesis Author.
Susan M. Inez is a professor of v. action, English and writing goddess based out of the michelle thesis text Northeast.
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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of michelle thesis, things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the american list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on obama, the shoulders of the giants.
The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is ebay case study, also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. Obama Text? It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of v. action research, referencing, the michelle obama thesis text better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and right appropriate system.
The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and michelle obama thesis text will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the paper source. You do this by stating the author(s) and michelle obama the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. Miranda Right? This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of text, your sentence is vernonia research papers, based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for michelle thesis text studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of american government research paper ideas, implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication.
Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and michelle thesis text , others prefer the paper ampersand ( symbol). Michelle Thesis Text? Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Our Cell Phones Ourselves? Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the thesis references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). Ebay Case Study? If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.
However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the obama thesis sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of ebay case study, a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the obama thesis exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the ebay case study original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on text, quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to phones ourselves essay use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it.
Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the obama text work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the essay right exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. Michelle Obama Thesis Text? The convention to ebay case study circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted.
Sometimes slashes are used between the thesis text dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the v. action from alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the michelle obama thesis text, you give the our cell phones family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication.
Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the michelle obama thesis text references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the paper name of the author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and thesis text listed in alphabetical order. Vernonia V. Action Papers From? Note that a bibliography and text list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in ebay case study the main text.
References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and michelle their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the research paper title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. Michelle Thesis? If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to research use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Michelle Obama Text? Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger.
Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in ebay case study single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and michelle thesis text year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to ebay case study give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995).
Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the michelle obama thesis text reference book. Research Paper? For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book.
The main difference really is that details about the volume and obama thesis page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the our cell phones essay volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Michelle Text? Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. On Intrinsic? (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Thesis Text? Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3).
Valente, T. Essay Miranda Right? (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. Thesis Text? There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in ebay case study square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and obama text the date when the document was accessed in brackets.
The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in right the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and thesis initial of the author, the year of american government research paper ideas, publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.
For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Michelle? Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and our cell phones essay journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the thesis year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the vernonia v. action from students name of your institution, the obama thesis text place, and research papers date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and text administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at our cell ourselves essay Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations.
It’s usually a good idea to obama thesis have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in phones ourselves brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for michelle thesis personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Ebay Case Study? Once again, bear in mind the credibility of obama thesis, your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author.
The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of phones, personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to michelle text check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.
If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and research provide a reasonable amount of information for text others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. Government? If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999).
Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by michelle obama thesis including the word unpublished in brackets at vernonia research papers from the end of the reference. Michelle Obama Thesis? With articles sent to american you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an michelle obama thesis text ordinary e-mail. Research? For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the michelle obama thesis text name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts.
Give the research ideas name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in obama thesis single speech marks, place of publication, and miranda right publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is obama thesis, capitalized.
In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is papers motivation, capitalized. Capitalization is obama thesis text, not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the papers students first word, verbs, and michelle obama thesis text adjectives. This is in fact almost everything.
Not put in capital letters are words like and , in from , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and text American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the government research paper ideas original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to obama text give you further guidance. Phones Ourselves? Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism.
Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of michelle obama thesis, somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is government research ideas, deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason).
Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is michelle text, something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. Miranda? By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by michelle obama text word.
In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is v. action, a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in obama text front of you, try using your notes. Phones Ourselves Essay? As you still will need to put those references for thesis the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to birthday research paper remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the obama thesis text text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in essay miranda right the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to michelle obama text be done: finding the proper reference, for ebay case study example.
If you think plagiarism is hard to thesis detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. Paper? If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to thesis change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is birthday research, no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is michelle obama text, just as much work as writing the american government research essay yourself.
Just to obama text give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. Our Cell Ourselves? There is software to scan essays for michelle obama text duplicates; and many institutes even have access to our cell phones essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. Obama Text? If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on american government, the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting.
Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the michelle obama thesis text tenses we use, the level of ebay case study, formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and michelle thesis text n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is essay right, often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. Obama Thesis Text? A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in ourselves references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the obama text internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an american research paper essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set.
In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. Michelle Obama? This is done by writing freely without having the vernonia v. action research from books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and obama take care to paper put references where you use the ideas from others. Michelle Obama Text? Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in birthday paper fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others.
Quotations are about the exact words used by michelle thesis others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the ebay case study words of someone else, you quote. Thesis Text? “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by paper ideas the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the michelle difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. Miranda? This is done to enable the reader to check the michelle thesis text words in the original context.
In the essay miranda right list of references at the end of the text, there is thesis text, no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. Ourselves Essay? Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in michelle thesis a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Ideas? For example: It is thesis, true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. Ebay Case Study? They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of thesis text, personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay.
If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the michelle obama thesis text exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in phones ourselves essay more general terms.
Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and michelle thesis text often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. Research On Intrinsic Motivation? If you rely too much on quotations, you run the michelle thesis text risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an government paper extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the text case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down.
By putting a place holder rather than chasing the essay miranda right reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the michelle essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book.
There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the american government paper referencing process. They manage citations, and michelle usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and birthday paper flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for thesis text quotations.
Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the our cell phones essay same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and michelle obama thesis text pasting, without the work of ebay case study, formatting the reference. Michelle Thesis Text? Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.
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Frequently Asked Questions: Applicants. Other Frequently Asked Questions. If you are going to be responsible for work that is defined as professional engineering according to the Professional Engineers Act , a P.Eng. licence may be required by law. Becoming licensed gives you the right to use “P.Eng.” after your name and text “engineer” in your job title. Research Paper? Under the michelle obama, Professional Engineers Act , you may only use “engineer” in your job title if you hold a P.Eng. licence. The P.Eng. American Government Research Ideas? licence also demonstrates that you have met a rigorous educational standard, have through a demanding, hands-on internship process, and obama thesis text are obliged to adhere to a strict code of ethics that puts the public interest first. All of these are valued within the research papers from students, engineering working community and society at michelle large, awarding you credibility and recognition. Licensing also puts you within the professional membership community of the essay, other 75,000 licensed professional engineers organized across the province in 36 PEO chapters. The practice of professional engineering is defined in obama thesis text, section 1 of the Professional Engineers Act and comprises three tests. Professional engineering is:
any act of right, designing, composing, evaluating, advising, reporting, directing or supervising, or the managing of any of these acts wherein the michelle, safeguarding of life, health, property, economic interests, the public welfare or the environment is ebay case study, concerned, and that requires the application of engineering principles. If what you do meets all three tests, you are practising professional engineering and must be licensed by the association. The definition applies to all situations where this particular combination of intellectual activity, societal protection and methodology exists regardless of whether the position is in industry, government or consulting. After graduation, can I call myself an engineer? No. Legally speaking, you are an engineering graduate, not an engineer. Only holders of a P.Eng. license are legally permitted to use the title “P.Eng.” or the term “engineer” in obama, their job title, or to use any other term, title or description that may lead to the belief that they are authorized to practice professional engineering. An engineering education is the first step to earning your license and eventually having the research and extrinsic, right to call yourself an engineer, but you may only use the term “engineer” in your job title once you have P.Eng. licence. Do you need to be licensed to working in the field of engineering in Ontario? As with medicine and law, you require a licence to do certain engineering work within the michelle obama thesis text, province of Ontario. Miranda? However, not everyone working in engineering requires a licence.
Whether you require a licence depends on thesis the type of vernonia research from students, engineering work you are doing, and the level of michelle, responsibility you have. The ability to practise engineering in ebay case study, Ontario is regulated by the Ontario Professional Engineers Act and its regulations, which outline who requires a licence, how to obtain a licence, and when a licence may be revoked. The Act is administered by Professional Engineers Ontario (PEO), a self-governing organization that grants licences to qualified individuals, disciplines licence holders who are found guilty of text, incompetence or misconduct, and enforces compliance with the licensing requirements of the Act. You require a licence if: Your work requires you to design, compose, evaluate, advise, report, direct or supervise; and research paper The work will safeguard life, health, property or the michelle thesis, public welfare; and research papers and extrinsic motivation The work requires the application of engineering principles.
You are not required to be licensed if, for example: Your work is strictly related to research, testing, or inspection; or There is no risk to life, health, property or the public welfare if your work is performed incorrectly; or The work is strictly scientific in nature. There are also other exceptions to licensure in michelle obama thesis text, the Act: You do not need to be licensed to do professional engineering if a licensed Ontario professional engineer takes responsibility for your work. You do not need a licence to design tools and dies. Any question regarding the need for a licence in a particular situation should be directed to vernonia v. action from, PEO at thesis text firstname.lastname@example.org. You do not have to ebay case study, wait to michelle obama thesis text, acquire your work experience before you apply for your licence. Application directly after graduation and vernonia v. action registration in the association's Engineering Intern program (EIT) is the next phase in michelle obama thesis, your transition from engineering student through to licensed professional.
The EIT program provides annual reviews and our cell phones guidance on the quality of experience you are receiving. Enrolment can also connect you with the engineering community through publications and Chapter membership. You may be credited with 12 months of text, experience if you have a postgraduate engineering degree or degrees. Please note that this experience credit cannot replace the essay right, requirement for 12 months of engineering experience in a Canadian jurisdiction under the supervision of a licensed professional engineer. What kind of michelle, engineering work experience is v. action from, required to obtain a P.Eng. licence? PEO evaluates each applicant’s engineering experience against thesis text, five, quality-based criteria: Application of Theory - This is the most important criteria since it shows that the work you are doing could not be done by a person who had not studied engineering. It indicates that you are having an opportunity to use the engineering principles that you learned at university. To be considered for essay miranda right licensing, your experience must include meaningful participation in at least one aspect of the following applications of theory: analysis design and synthesis testing methods implementation methods We expect that you can communicate to us which engineering principle you have used in any of the michelle, above areas and why it is applicable under the circumstances.
Practical Experience - Practical experience provides applicants with an appreciation of the fundamental roles of function, time, cost, reliability, reparability, safety and environmental impact in ebay case study, their work. Practical experience should include such aspects as: function of components as part of michelle obama thesis, a larger system; opportunities to experience and research paper understand the michelle obama text, limitations of practical engineering and related human systems in achieving desired goals; opportunities to experience the significance of time in the engineering process; opportunities to paper, acquire knowledge and understanding of codes, standards, regulations and laws that govern applicable engineering activities. ‘Opportunities’ mentioned above means that you have been given experience in these areas, not just observed or read manuals. Having an understanding of the codes and standards means that you know how and why they were developed and can explain this to michelle thesis text, us when asked. Management of Engineering - Management of engineering projects includes supervising staff, managing projects, being exposed generally to an engineering business environment, and papers and extrinsic managing technology from a societal perspective. Michelle Thesis? Acceptable management components involve: This criteria is one that is used to identify progress. Usually, new grads are given very little experience in birthday research paper, this area; however, as they acquire more experience, they should be given more and obama thesis more responsibilities in each component. Communication Skills - An opportunity to research papers, develop communication skills is an important experience requirement. This applies to michelle obama thesis, communication in all areas of the research, work environment, including communication with supervisors, co-workers, government regulators, clients and the general public.
For an applicant’s experience in this area to be acceptable, the applicant should have regular opportunities to participate in: preparing written work; making oral reports or presentations; making presentations to obama thesis text, the general public. Social Implications of Engineering - The social implications of engineering are an important aspect of engineering practice. A professional engineering work environment is one that heightens an applicant’s awareness of any social consequences, both positive and negative, of an engineering activity. Essay Miranda Right? While not every project or activity will have direct or immediate social consequences, an applicant’s work experience should nevertheless, instill an awareness of the: value or benefits of engineering works to the public; relationship between engineering activity and michelle obama text the public at large; safeguards in place to protect employees and the public and to mitigate adverse impacts; and significant role of paper, regulatory agencies in the practice of engineering. Experience in this area should foster an awareness of an engineer’s professional responsibility to guard against conditions dangerous or threatening to life, limb, property, or the obama text, environment, and to call such conditions to the attention of those responsible. This is not limited to the immediate work environment but should extend to the end users of the engineering work. Does my work experience have to vernonia v. action research papers students, include all five quality-based criteria?
PEO does not expect that all of your jobs will provide experience in all five of the michelle obama thesis text, criteria. Your experience is taken as a whole and depends on the work you do. Papers From? Sometimes, you may do work that satisfies only three categories, other times work that satisfies all five. There is one exception: as mentioned earlier, the most important of the criteria is “Application of Theory”. It clearly separates out the jobs that anyone can do from jobs that require the knowledge of someone who has studied engineering. Michelle Obama Thesis Text? Therefore, in all cases, you should be in a position to demonstrate that this was an integral part of your work. In considering the essay miranda, eligibility of experience for licensing, PEO must err on the side of obama thesis text, caution, in the public interest. Therefore, work experience that is not clearly professional engineering-related might be given only partial credit or entirely excluded from consideration. What about my pre-graduation experience? PEO considers experience gained before graduation when assessing the quality of the required four years of research papers on intrinsic motivation, satisfactory engineering experience. PEO may allow for up to 12 months for obama thesis pre-graduation experience toward the vernonia research papers students, 48 months of minimum acceptable engineering experience requirement.
To be eligible, the michelle obama thesis, pre-graduation experience must: be acceptable engineering experience, based on the five quality-based criteria; have been obtained after you have completed at least 50% of your courses; and papers on intrinsic be seen as a stepping stone to your professional development. Each work-term must be documented and your supervisor must sign the documentation, which you will submit with your Application for Licence when you are ready to apply. PEO recognizes that pre-grad experience is not likely to be at the same level of intensity and responsibility as post-grad experience, therefore the acceptability feature is somewhat lighter than what is expected after graduation. However, PEO does expect to see that the pre-grad experience is a learning tool and will have aided in michelle obama text, progressing the applicant’s understanding of the professional engineering working environment. Can a post-graduate degree such as a Master’s Degree count towards the vernonia students, practical experience requirement? Completing of a post-graduate degree in engineering, in the same or reasonably similar discipline of engineering as your Bachelor’s, normally results in 12 months of credit towards the required 48 months of experience. You will not receive credit for studies in areas outside of engineering (e.g. business administration). A post-graduate student may also get additional experience credit if the student works in conjunction with industry sponsorship, is directly supervised by a P.Eng. at michelle obama thesis the sponsoring company and the thesis research work has a distinct, and imminent practical application meeting PEO’s criteria. This work is not equivalent to industrial experience and is assessed separately. The total experience credit cannot exceed the time spent to complete the post-graduate degree.
Which work terms can I use for pre-graduation experience? Any work term or summer job involving engineering, started after you have completed 50% of your program’s course load, may be eligible for consideration. Does my supervisor have to be a professional engineer (P.Eng.)? Do I require a P.Eng. signature? The supervisor who signs your pre-graduation work experience form does not have to research, be a professional engineer.
However, if there is a question about the eligibility of your experience, having a P.Eng. supervisor will aid PEO in its evaluation. Your work experience has to satisfy PEO’s experience requirements. Therefore, anything you can do to demonstrate clearly the appropriateness of your work experience can be valuable. For example, if your supervisor was not a P.Eng., but his/her manager was, you might consider having both your supervisor and his/her manager sign your pre-graduation experience summary. When do I submit my Pre-graduation Experience Record to michelle obama thesis text, PEO? Submit your Pre-graduation Experience Record at the time you apply for your P.Eng. licence.
Do not wait until then to fill out the form, however. Miranda Right? Fill out the form as soon as you have ended your work placement, so you can get it signed by your employer (and can accurately recall what exactly you worked on). What are some examples of inadequate pre-graduation experience? Sales or marketing jobs where you do not apply theory and/or engineering principles might not meet PEO’s experience requirement. A data entry job or simple programming or database manipulation, where you use a software package designed by someone else might not qualify if your work does not include engineering analysis and design.
Providing technical support for a software company while studying to become a civil engineer would likely not qualify as pre-graduation experience as it is not in your field of text, study unless you prove through your post-grad experience that you are practising in a field that combines the two streams. May I do engineering work while my application is being considered? Yes. You may do engineering work, provided a licensed professional engineer takes responsibility for your work. And Extrinsic? In Ontario, it is illegal to use the title “professional engineer” or any variation thereof as an occupational or business title if you are not licensed by PEO. What is the thesis text, Engineering Intern Training (EIT) program? The EIT program provides guidance and assistance to v. action research papers from, engineering graduates as they acquire the 48 months of acceptable engineering work experience, including annual reviews of experience to ensure that an applicant is “on the right track” for licensing. Benefits of the EIT program include: the opportunity to receive detailed, confidential, annual; work experience reviews; eligibility to participate in PEO’s Mentorship Program; access to Engineering Dimensions , the association’s official journal; opportunities to michelle text, attend EIT seminars at PEO’s office or through sponsoring chapters; the opportunity to join a PEO chapter, attend meetings and network with professional colleagues; email notices of events or items of vernonia from students, interest pertaining to your development into a licensed engineer; access to the Licence Holders’ Only section of PEO’s website and the opportunity to participate in online discussions with other PEO members through the Discussion Forum; and the opportunity to join the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers and participate in michelle thesis text, their member-only services, such as insurance and our cell phones ourselves essay investment plans, and online Career Centre.
As well, becoming an EIT demonstrates to thesis, employers that an applicant is serious about american government paper ideas, being licensed as a professional engineer.