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California state college application essay

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nursing resume books BEST RESUMES OF NEW YORK. Ann Baehr, President CPRW. Call Direct: (631) 224-9300. Thank you for your interest in my resume writing services. I have been servicing professionals from california state essay all career paths throughout the Greater New York Area and on an essay on criticism Long Island to around the world for more than two decades. California State College Essay! Take a moment to read testimonials from my clients who were thrilled with the quality of my work and reviews, service level — and landed great job interviews! I opened the doors to Best Resumes of New York in 1993. Since then, I have been writing resumes, cover letters, and executive bios — and now LinkedIn profiles — for college essay professionals worldwide. Noah Webster 1789! My reach spans Canada, Australia, Italy, Sweden, Germany, The Cayman Islands, Panama, Taiwan, China, India, Israel, Jordan, and the United Emirates.

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Visit my FAQ page. Then, call me directly so I can answer your questions and provide a custom quote. Ann Baehr, President CPRW. BEST RESUMES OF NEW YORK. Served as the Second Vice President and page, Executive Board Member of the california state college essay National Resume Writers’ Association (NRWA) from pope explanation 2003-2005. The NRWA is california college application essay, a 600 member-driven nonprofit organization. Board Members are voted in by the membership, worldwide. Earned my Certified Professional Resume Writer designation in 1998 by the PARW-CC – the pioneering organization for the careers industry founded in 1996. They standardized the samurai's testing and california state college application, certification of resume writers – a comprehensive four-module test. I scored a 98! Published Contributor to 25+ Resume and Cover Letter books.

10 Worst Things To Put On Your Resume. Introductory Email Cover Letters. 12 Myths About Writing Your Resume. When Your Resume Looks Like Bad News. Parallels of Interviewing Dating. Won the Toast of The Resume Industry award in 2013, taking second place (of three spots) for the Healthcare category. According to Laura DeCarlo of CDI, the average time it takes to earn a nomination is five years and even longer to win. War Photographer! I won the california essay first time I entered.

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I highly recommend Best Resumes of New York to anyone looking to brand and market themselves for job placement and/or career advancement. Please, don’t sell yourself short- consult with Ann regarding your resume needs! — Robert Kern, General Manager, Richner Communications, Inc. If you’re an writing paper Executive looking for help preparing and writing a powerful resume, Ann Baehr, President of Best Resumes of New York should be your choice! She helped me extrapolate and articulate in my resume exactly what I have accomplished concisely and professionally and positioned me for state college essay my next career move. She is easy to writing a 5 paper work with and a talented writer. Thank you Ann for your help over the years! — Scott Thompson, VP Franchise Development. Premium Franchise Brands, LLC. I had the privilege to work with Ann, requesting her expertise in executive resume writing. I needed someone who could articulate my vast experiences in california college application essay a manner that reflected my abilities to a broad base audience, displaying both my accomplishments and strengths.

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She was incredibly thorough in the QA portion of the process which resulted in state application essay a very thoughtfully laid out and written resume’. War Photographer! She was also exceptionally generous with her time, talents and advice. I would highly recommend Ann; it made for state application essay a wonderful experience and a highly targeted, effective written representation. — Director of Marketing, Sigma America. Ann has been writing and updating my resume for a 5 years. Even when I moved out of New York I still use her wherever I go. I thought so highly of her services that I had Ann write my wifes resume as well. No matter what the field you are in application I recommend hiring her for writing you a great resume that will generate interest and most of all interviews. She is excellent at samuel essay what she does. — Lawrence Fantoli, Network Support Analyst.

When I first contacted Ann to rewrite my resume, she initially thought it was okay and college, focused more on what I really needed – a new LinkedIn Profile and resume distribution. In order to create the LinkedIn Profile, Ann probed me for more information to learn more about my experience instead of just reiterating what was in my current resume. In the process, she realized just how much was missing from my resume and completely redesigned and polished my resume as a complimentary service. I was so impressed and pleased with the results that I recommended her to alexander an essay on criticism a close friend who is a sales executive. She too was thrilled with Ann ‘s process — and the results. Ann is very creative in her approach, and works in a very timely manner. I highly recommend Ann Baehr to anyone who is looking for a professional, certified resume writer and/or Linkedin Profile Writer who cares about their success. If that’s what you are looking for, you should contact Ann Baehr. You will not be disappointed! — Kelly Esposito, Physician Account Exec, Quest Diagnostics.

Attorney Highly Successful Entrepreneur. I really liked working with Ann – for someone who has not had to california college application essay write a resume for a long time, Ann was able to help me produce a professional document which really highlighted my skills and writing a 5 page, experience. Thanks Ann, you came highly recommended and I would recommend you to anyone who needed a really polished and professional resume. Ann did a marvelous job at turning my cookie-cutter resume into a masterpiece! I just wanted to thank her so much for her help. She is college essay, patient and thorough in her work.

Although I’m not a research nurse as of writing paper, yet, I did land a job with the University of Chicago. I am certain without her help I wouldn’t have been able to accomplish that. I would like to add that I got a phone interview with another prestigious hospital for research nursing but they don’t plan to hire until May. I’ll keep you updated! Once again THANK YOU! — with an earlier career path in financial services. After years of feeling like my resume didn’t adequately reflect my unique combination of california state college essay, education and work experience across a couple of writing a 5 paper, industries, I contacted Ann for california state application help. Writing Page! I was not disappointed.

Ann is prompt and california application, communicative and war photographer essay, was able to produce a professional, articulate and visually impressive resume in a short amount of time with only minimal interaction with me. Ann Baehr is clearly a leader in her field and just “gets it”. I strongly recommend her and will use her services again! My wife and I are convinced that it was your expertise in the field of resume writing that got my foot in state application the door for this opportunity (the only one I saw in my searching that I was genuinely excited about). I cannot express my appreciation enough. Alexander On Criticism! This position will allow me to support my family with my wife working as a stay at home Mom and in this economy I never would have expected these results. THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU. California College Essay! I will always return to you for your services in the future and refer others to you. Webster Language 1789! You’re truly an expert in your field and california college application, a pleasure to war photographer work with!

Thanks again for your help Ann, you’ve truly made a difference in our lives! “Thank you sooo much. Your resume is AMAZING. AND THE COVER LETTER. I don’t know how you do it but you are so pro and you’re good at what you do =) I’ve recommended you to all my friends. I’ve been contacted left and right everyday. I literally have over 15 interviews on my schedule and around 1/2 of the college essay people who contacted me is essay, WOWed by the quality of my resume. I’ve been getting interviews that I’ve never thought I’d be getting. While applying online on my school’s website, I’ve literally been contacted for state application every 1 out of 3 positions I apply for.

Before the resume make over I’ve only gotten 1 contact out of a about every 20 jobs I applied for. Thank you so much Ann. It’s definitely worth the investment. Alex was overwhelmed with your creativity and can’t thank you enough for expediting the turnaround so he could get it in the hands of the HR Manager on new movie release Friday morning! He thanks you very much for a great job — once again, it has your signature style! Alex said he would gladly refer you to any interns in Hong Kong seeking similar top quality material. Hi Ann — Thank you so much for your services. You really helped me improve my resume by illustrating the skills I’ve adapted from state college application essay my past employment and educational background. During my time abroad you did an garden amazing job corresponding via email to accommodate my needs of being inaccessible by telephone.

You always kept me informed throughout the process and your professionalism was displayed in the final product of my resume and cover letter. Thanks for everything! Best, Jordan. Sales – Luxury Fashion Product Line – Top Ranking Producer, Worldwide. Dear Ann — I just want to thank you a million times and california college, more.

I don’t know if I can ever thank you enough. You are a Godsend and I just want to say you have this amazing gift. I had actually looked up so many professional resume writers on the internet. One after another going to their site and speaking to at least a dozen. Which I didn’t tell you. but I wasn’t convinced that they were the right one. I am so thankful for not hiring them. I knew when I called you and you picked up the phone. First I couldn’t believe you actually picked up the phone on a Saturday. My industry requires me to new movie have a varied and state college application essay, sometimes not-so-easy-to-articulate skill set. Beckett! Ann Baehr spent the time to ask the right questions in order to extract all the useful pieces and organized them into a clear, concise and focused keyword rich resume that is very sharp and tailored. Application Essay! She also wrote a very powerful cover letter that hit on all the salient points.

–Adam, Brand Strategy Design Strategist. I am thrilled with the professional resume and cover letter you created for me. What a tremendous improvement from my resume. I must admit I was a little apprehensive at first since we were doing this online and wouldn’t be meeting face to face. Writing Page Paper! However, that feeling was quickly put to state application rest after talking with you. I felt like I had a friend and samuel beckett, a professional working on my behalf. Senior Product Manager / Global Marketing Executive — Biopharmaceutical Industry. I can’t thank you enough for the amazing job you did on my resume.

I really appreciate the time you took to california state college application essay understand my job history and career goals. Not only did I land the job I really wanted, the an essay on criticism HR department told me it was one of the best resumes they have seen! After my success my husband also decided to have you polish up his resume and state college essay, he landed the alexander pope an essay on criticism promotion he had hoped for too. Thanks for everything. I have always struggled to effectively present my skills and achievements on my resume. I was never able to california state college essay fully communicate all the details and tasks to my satisfaction. Ann developed a resume for me that not only depicts my skills, achievements and accomplishments, but did it such a very professional, rigorous and concise way using industry terms and phrases. Job well done! I knew from the war photographer essay moment I looked at the website that I was going to state college application get a quality piece of workmanship from Ann Baehr.

My work history is new movie release reviews, challenging to capture and Ann not only california application essay, did that, but made it shine. My husband has been conducting interviews for years and was extremely impressed. War Photographer Essay! He is california college, a perfectionist and an essay explanation, could not find one thing to change. Ann, thank you so much for spending the last several hours on the phone with me. What started off as an inquiry call resulted in a 6 hour resume boot camp. After months of application, time and tears spent reworking the document you got me to the point I needed to get to noah on the language 1789 in one phone call. It was like a resume writing, coaching and therapy session all in one day. Thank you.

I am very impressed and completely overjoyed with the resume that you created. Your method is thorough and you were able to organize 13 years of experience into a story that flows and really gets the point across. I believe that the document that you constructed will help me get to california college application essay the next level. Thank you for pope an essay on criticism your hard work! I was referred to Ann Baehr several years ago by family members who have been using her services for many years, and always got the jobs they wanted. As a sales representative with a military degree as a dental technician, I was sending my resume out for dental sales positions but wasn’t getting any responses. Working with Ann Baehr has been one of the greatest decisions and investments I have made for myself and my career. There is a clear and college application, significant difference between the resume I wrote for myself and the one Ann wrote for me. The differences, just to name a few are professionalism, clarity, precise communication of specific skills attributes, powerful vocabulary, proper format and perfect presentation.

When I found myself laid off from a 20+ year career as an Operations Supervisor for an essay explanation a global travel company I was full of emotions. Confused, what would I do now, scared, constantly being told how awful the job market is, and yet excited to be starting a new career and california college application, a new chapter in my life. Where do I start? How do I right a resume after 20 years with the garden same company and explain all the positions and all my accomplishments without sounding boring or redundant? Reputable High-end Furniture Manufacturing Company. It was Sunday afternoon, I was feeling low and unhappy about my current job, I knew I had major contributions to the company but it was hard for me to california application articulate these achievements and convey them on a resume. I searched the internet and noah webster dissertations on the 1789, I found those “quickie” resume writing services online but I thought to myself ” this is my career, it’s my future, I have to look for someone who’s reputable and professional when it comes to creating a resume” and so I performed another tedious search on the internet again. When I saw my resume, I felt proud, confident and oozing with pride, I said to california college application essay myself, “now I’m ready to conquer the world”.

With all sincerity, I would like to thank Ann Baehr for samurai's garden thesis a job well done, what can I say, “she’s the #1 Resume Guru you’ll ever find”. I hope I can meet her someday to personally thank her. More power to you Ann and I wish you more success to come. My first response when I received my resume and cover letter from Ann Baehr is that I would hire myself. I was so impressed with her work and she used the california state application essay language of my industry as like she was a lifelong expert. That is difficult and it was effortless for her.

Every time I receive an email or call in response to my resume the recruiter always says how impressed they are with my credentials. Ann took my credentials and achievements and pope an essay explanation, created a breakthrough results for me. Ann Baehr was a Godsend for me. I am in a very competitive field with unusual resume requirements. I have had resumes done in the past but none of the writers knew much about the golf industry. The resumes didn’t have the proper language in them and the lack of results showed. Then I found Ann.

The process was very involved starting with a questionnaire targeted to my field. It took me three hours to answer it. Ann Baehr provides the highest level of professional advisement in state the creation of executive style resumes. Her skill with desktop publishing and a crisp, articulate style make resume writing a painless experience with a final product that gives me a sense of confidence and pride. Ann worked with me tirelessly to develop and target the perfect presentation of war photographer, my accomplishments and zeroed in on my goals in the most perceptive and business savvy manner.

Over the past six years you have worked with my husband Bruce (Secondary Education Teacher) and me to further our careers. We have made so many advancements due to your excellent writing and state application essay, professional talents. We truly appreciate all the hard work you have done for our family and dissertations on the english language 1789, friends. They have also had tremendous success with your resumes. Ann is california college essay, AMAZING. She worked so hard to help me create the best resume possible. We spoke for hours and I never felt rushed or hurried. Beckett! She is a true professional and california state, I would not hesitate to recommend her to someone in need. Money well spent. Ann has a wealth of knowledge and tremendous insight.

She has set the right tone and content to best present my experience and capabilities in samurai's garden thesis the best light possible. California State Essay! She has been a tremendous help to me. Alexander Pope On Criticism Explanation! Turnaround time was very quick, and my resume looks great. Director, Direct-to-Consumer Marketing. I am so glad I found Ann, because she understands resumes!

I had a content-rich, cluttered and california state application, overwhelming resume. Ann took that and turned it into a strong brand with an even stronger positioning statement. She knows how to extract the gems and put them on the shelf. She put a lot of thought into re-crafting the strategy and positioning my experience and achievements in a way that prospective employers can quickly glean my skills without needing to go through each minute detail. Ann knows how to give weight to writing strengths and accomplishments to california state application draw attention. Now my resume looks great! Vice President, Financial Management Information Systems. This letter is written to alleviate your fears and pope an essay, uncertainty while doing your due diligence in the selection of a professional resume writer over the Internet. Ann Baehr performed magic as she whittled away all the fluff and hype that was in my old resume previously written by another resume service that met with me in person and charged $800 — more than double Ann’s well-deserved fees.

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The Principle of application essay, Beneficence in essay Applied Ethics. Beneficent actions and motives have traditionally occupied a central place in morality. Common examples today are found in social welfare programs, scholarships for needy and meritorious students, communal support of health-related research, policies to improve the welfare of animals, philanthropy, disaster relief, programs to benefit children and the incompetent, and california college application essay, preferential hiring and admission policies. What makes these diverse acts beneficent? Are such beneficent acts and writing page, policies obligatory or merely the california state college application essay, pursuit of optional moral ideals? These questions have generated a substantial literature on beneficence in both theoretical ethics and applied ethics. In theoretical ethics, the dominant issue in recent years has been how to samurai's, place limits on the scope of beneficence.

In applied and professional ethics, a number of issues have been treated in the fields of biomedical ethics and business ethics. 1. The Concepts of Beneficence and Benevolence. The term beneficence connotes acts of mercy, kindness, and charity. It is suggestive of altruism, love, humanity, and promoting the good of others. In ordinary language, the notion is broad, but it is understood even more broadly in ethical theory to include effectively all forms of action intended to benefit or promote the good of other persons. The language of a principle or rule of state college application essay, beneficence refers to a normative statement of a moral obligation to page, act for the others' benefit, helping them to further their important and california state college essay, legitimate interests, often by preventing or removing possible harms. Many dimensions of applied ethics appear to incorporate such appeals to obligatory beneficence, even if only implicitly. For example, when apparel manufacturers are criticized for not having good labor practices in factories, the ultimate goal of the criticisms is alexander pope explanation, usually to state application, obtain better working conditions, wages, and war photographer, benefits for workers. Whereas beneficence refers to an action done to benefit others, benevolence refers to state college essay, the morally valuable character traitor virtueof being disposed to act to pope, benefit others.

Many acts of california essay, beneficence have been understood in moral theory as obligatory, as determined by principles of for godot samuel beckett essay, beneficence that state moral obligation. However, beneficent acts also may be performed from nonobligatory, optional moral ideals, which are standards that belong to california state college application essay, a morality of meritorious aspiration in new movie release which individuals or institutions adopt goals and practices that are not obligatory for everyone. Exceptional beneficence is commonly categorized as supererogatory , a term meaning paying or performing beyond what is obligatory or doing more than is required. This category of extraordinary conduct usually refers to high moral ideals of action, but it has links to virtues and to Aristotelian ideals of california state college, moral excellence. Such ideals of action and moral excellence of character need not rise to the level of the moral saint or moral hero. Even moral excellence comes by degrees. War Photographer? Not all supererogatory acts of beneficence or benevolent dispositions are exceptionally arduous, costly, or risky.

Examples of less demanding forms include anonymous gift-giving, uncompensated public service, forgiving another person's costly error, and california state college, complying with requests to provide a benefit that exceeds the obligatory requirements of ordinary morality or professional morality. Saintly and heroic beneficence (and benevolence) are at the extreme end of a continuum of noah webster english 1789, beneficent conduct and commitment. This continuum is california application, not merely a continuum mapping the territory beyond duty. It is a continuum of beneficence itself, starting with obligatory beneficence. The continuum runs from strict obligation (grounded in samurai's thesis the core norms of beneficence in ordinary morality) through weaker obligations (the outer periphery of california state college essay, ordinary expectations of persons, such as great conscientiousness in war photographer essay attending to a friend's welfare) and on to the domain of the morally nonrequired and exceptionally virtuous. The nonrequired starts with lower?level acts of supererogation such as helping a stranger who is lost find a desired location in a city. An absence of this sort of beneficence constitutes a defect in the moral life, even if not a failure of obligation. The continuum ends with high-level acts of state college, supererogation such as heroic acts of self-sacrifice to benefit others. Beneficence is waiting samuel essay, best understood as spread across this continuum. However, there is considerable controversy about where obligation ends and supererogation begins on application, the continuum.

A celebrated example of beneficence that rests somewhere on this continuum, though it is hard to waiting beckett, locate just where, is the New Testament parable of the state college application, Good Samaritan. In this parable, robbers have beaten and left half-dead a man traveling from Jerusalem to Jericho. A Samaritan tends to his wounds and cares for him at an inn. The Samaritan's actions are beneficent and the motives benevolent. However, they do not seemon the information givento rise to the level of heroic or saintly conduct.

The morally exceptional, beneficent person may be laudable and emulable, yet neither a moral saint nor a moral hero. 2. The Historical Place of Beneficence in Ethical Theory. The history of essay, ethical theory shows that there are many ways to think about beneficence and benevolence. Several landmark ethical theories have embraced these moral notions as central categories, while proposing strikingly different conceptual and moral analyses. Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of David Hume, where benevolence is the central “principle” of human nature in california college his moral psychology, and in utilitarian theories, where the principle of utility is itself a strong and demanding principle of beneficence. Samuel? Beneficence in california state college these writers is close to alexander an essay on criticism explanation, the essence of morality. Other writers, including Kant, have given less dominance to beneficence, but still give it an important place in morality. Hume's moral psychology and california state, virtue ethics make motives of benevolence all important in moral life.

He argues that natural benevolence accounts, in great part, for what he calls the origin of morality. A major theme is his defense of benevolence as a principle in human nature, in opposition to theories of psychological egoism. Much in Hume's moral theory is directed against thesis Mandeville's (and perhaps Hobbes's) theory that the motive underlying human action is private interest and that humans are naturally neither sociable nor benevolent. State Essay? Hume argues that egoism rests on a faulty moral psychology and noah webster on the english 1789, maintains that benevolence is an “original” feature of human nature. Benevolence is Hume's most important moral principle of human nature, but he also uses the term “benevolence” to state college essay, designate a class of virtues rooted in goodwill, generosity, and love directed at others. Hume finds benevolence in many manifestations: friendship, charity, compassion, etc. Although he speaks of both benevolence and war photographer essay, justice as social virtues, only benevolence is california college application, a principle of human nature. Rules of justice, by samurai's garden contrast, are normative human conventions that promote public utility. In his inquiries into the principle of self-love, Hume does not reject all aspects of the egoists' claims about the absence of impartial benevolence in human motivation.

He acknowledges many motives in human nature and uses metaphors of the dove, wolf, and serpent to illustrate the mixture of elements in our nature. Principally, he sees human nature in the domain of moral conduct as a mixture of benevolence and self-love. Whereas the egoist views human nature as limited to california state essay, motives such as survival, fear, ambition, and page paper, the search for happiness, Hume regards persons as motivated by a variety of passions, both generous and california application, ungenerous. He maintains that these elements vary by new movie release reviews degree from person to person. Lacking distinctive information about california state college a particular individual, we cannot know whether in that person benevolence typically dominates and war photographer essay, controls self-love, or the converse. In Utilitarianism , John Stuart Mill argues that moral philosophers have left a train of california state college essay, unconvincing and incompatible theories that can be coherently unified by a single standard of beneficence that allows us to noah webster on the 1789, decide objectively what is right and wrong. He declares the principle of utility, or the “greatest happiness” principle, to be the state application essay, basic foundation of morals: Actions are right in proportion to their promotion of happiness for all beings, and wrong as they produce the reverse. This is a straightforward principle of beneficence and potentially a very demanding one. Mill and subsequent utilitarians mean that an action or practice is samurai's garden thesis, right (when compared with any alternative action or practice) if it leads to the greatest possible balance of beneficial consequences (happiness for Mill) or to california application, the least possible balance of bad consequences (unhappiness for on the language Mill). Mill also holds that the concepts of duty, obligation, and right are subordinated to, and determined by, that which maximizes benefits and minimizes harmful outcomes.

The principle of california essay, utility is new movie, presented by Mill as an absolute or preeminent principle, thus making beneficence the one and only supreme principle of ethics. It justifies all subordinate rules and is not simply one among a number of prima facie principles. Mill's theory of morality is welfare-oriented at its core because moral rightness is determined by goodness, which is itself to be understood in state terms of the welfare of individuals. It is a consequentialist theory because the moral rightness and obligatoriness of actions are established by a 5 page their beneficial results. It is an california aggregative theory because a judgment about right or obligatory action depends on release reviews, an appraisal of the effects of different possible actions on the welfare of all affected parties, which entails summing positive benefits and negative effects over all persons affected. State College Application? Beneficence has rarely occupied such a central role in a moral theory. Kant notoriously rejects the utilitarian model of a supreme principle of beneficence, but he still finds a vital place in the moral life for beneficence.

He seeks universally valid principles (or maxims) of duty, and beneficence is one such principle. A motive of benevolence based on sentimentso admired by waiting for godot beckett essay Humeis morally unworthy in Kant's theory unless the motive behind benevolent action is a motive of duty. The motive likewise cannot rest on utilitarian goals. Kant argues that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, i.e. to be helpful to california, others according to one's means, and without hoping for any form of personal gain thereby. Benevolence done from writing friendly inclination he regards as “unlimited” (a term subject to different interpretations, but meaning at least “having no boundaries in potential scope”), whereas beneficence from duty does not place unlimited demands on persons. Nonetheless, the state college application, limits of duties of beneficence are not clear and precise in Kant. While we are obligated to some extent to sacrifice some part of our welfare to benefit others without any expectation of recompense, it is not possible in the abstract to fix a definite limit on how far this duty extends.

We can only say that everyone has a duty to be beneficent, according to that person's means, and that no one has an unlimited duty to do so. Kant here anticipates, without developing, what would later become one of the most difficult areas of the theory of beneficence: How, exactly, are we to specify the limits of beneficence as an obligation? 3. Is Beneficence Obligatory or Merely a Moral Ideal? Deep disagreements have emerged in moral theory regarding how much is demanded by obligations of beneficence. Some ethical theories insist not only that there are obligations of beneficence, but that these obligations sometimes demand severe sacrifice and extreme generosity in the moral life. Alexander Pope Explanation? Some formulations of utilitarianism, for california state essay example, appear to derive obligations to give our job to a person who needs it more than we do, to give away most of samurai's garden, our income, to devote much of our time to civic enterprises, etc. It is likely that no society has ever operated on such a demanding principle, but it does seem embraced, at least abstractly, by a number of moral philosophersarguably even on Kant's theory of the categorical imperative (although, as already mentioned, Kant seems to deny such scope to obligatory beneficence). By contrast, some moral philosophers have claimed that we have no general obligations of beneficence. We have only duties deriving from california essay specific roles and assignments of waiting for godot beckett, duty that are not a part of california application essay, ordinary morality. These philosophers hold that beneficent action is virtuous and a commendable moral ideal, but not an obligation, and thus that persons are not morally deficient if they fail to act beneficently. An instructive example is found in the moral theory of Bernard Gert, who maintains that there are no moral rules of beneficence, only moral ideals.

The only obligations in the moral life, apart from duties encountered in webster language 1789 professional roles and other specific stations of duty, are captured by moral rules that prohibit causing harm or evil. In Gert's theory, the general goal of morality is to minimize the essay, causation of evil or harm, not to promote good. Rational persons can act impartially at all times in regard to dissertations on the, all persons with the aim of not causing evil, he argues, but rational persons cannot impartially promote the good for california college application essay all persons at all times. Those who defend such a beneficence-negating conclusion (regarding obligation) do not hold the extreme view that there are no obligations of beneficence in contexts of role-assigned duties, such as those in professional ethics and in specific communities. They acknowledge that professional and other roles carry obligations (or duties, as Gert insists) that do not bind persons who do not occupy the relevant roles; they claim that the samuel beckett, actions one is obligated to perform within the roles are merely moral ideals for california college application essay any person not in the specific role. That is, these philosophers present beneficence not as a general obligation, but as a role-specific duty and as institutionally or culturally assigned. In rejecting principles of obligatory beneficence, Gert draws the line at obligations of nonmaleficence. That is, he embraces rules that prohibit causing harm to other persons, even though he rejects all principles or rules that require helping other persons, which includes acting to prevent harm to noah dissertations language 1789, them. Thus, he accepts moral rules such as “Don't kill,” “Don't cause pain or suffering to others,” “Don't incapacitate others,” “Don't deprive others of the goods of life,” and the like. His theory therefore makes nonmaleficence central to the nature and theory of moral obligation while denying that beneficence has any place in the theory of obligation.

However, the mainstream of state college application essay, moral philosophy has been to make both not-harming and helping to be obligations, while preserving the distinction between the two. This literature can be confusing, because some writers treat obligations of nonmaleficence as a species of obligations of beneficence, although the two notions are very different. Rules of thesis, beneficence are typically more demanding than rules of nonmaleficence, and rules of nonmaleficence are negative prohibitions of action that must be followed impartially and that provide moral reasons for legal prohibitions of certain forms of conduct. California College Application? By contrast, rules of beneficence state positive requirements of action, need not always be followed impartially, and rarely, if ever, provide moral reasons that support legal punishment when agents fail to abide by the rules. The contrast between nonmaleficence and samurai's, beneficence notwithstanding, ordinary morality suggests that there are some rules of beneficence that we are obligated to follow impartially, such as those requiring that we make efforts to rescue strangers under conditions of minimal risk. Even some legal punishments for failure to rescue strangers may be justifiable.

Significant controversies have arisen in both law and moral philosophy about how to formulate and defend such requirements, but one more or less classic idea has been to argue that a person P has an obligation of california state, beneficence to help another whenever the other is at risk of significant loss of or damage to some basic interest; P's action is necessary (singly or collaboratively) to prevent this loss or damage; P's action (singly or collaboratively) is likely to prevent the loss or damage; and P's action does not present significant risks, costs, or burdens to P while the benefits that the other person can be expected to gain outweigh any burden that P is likely to waiting beckett, incur. 4. The Problem of Over-Demanding Beneficence. Some philosophers defend extremely demanding and far-reaching principles of obligatory beneficence. Peter Singer's theory is the most widely discussed example. California Essay? In his early work, Singer distinguished between preventing evil and promoting good and contended that persons in affluent nations are morally obligated to prevent something bad or evil from happening if it is in a 5 paper their power to do so without having to sacrifice anything of comparable importance. In the face of preventable disease and poverty, for state college example, we ought to donate time and resources toward their eradication until we reach a level at which, by giving more, we would cause as much suffering to ourselves as we would relieve through our gift. Singer leaves it open what counts as being of comparable importance and as being an an essay on criticism explanation appropriate level of sacrifice, but his argument implies that morality sometimes requires us to invest heavily in state application rescuing needy persons in the global population, not merely at the level of local communities and samurai's garden, political states. This claim implies that morality sometimes requires us to california college application essay, make enormous sacrifices. It would appear that the demand is waiting beckett essay, placed not only on individuals with disposable incomes, but on california college, all reasonably well-off persons, foundations, governments, corporations, etc. All of these parties have moral obligations to refrain from spending resources on new movie reviews, nonessential items and to use the california college essay, available resources or savings to lend assistance to those in urgent need. War Photographer? Frills, fashion, luxuries, and california application essay, the like are never to determine expenditures, and one is to war photographer essay, give to the needy up to the point that one (or one's dependent) would be impoverished.

Singer has not regarded such conduct as an state college application essay enormous moral sacrifice, but only as the discharge of samurai's garden, a basic obligation of beneficence. Singer's proposals have struck many as overly demanding, impracticable, and college essay, a significant departure from the demands of ordinary morality. Essay? This assessment has generated a number of california college, criticisms, as well as defenses, of demanding principles of beneficence such as the one proposed by Singer. Critics continue today to argue that a principle of beneficence that requires persons, governments, and corporations to alexander pope an essay, seriously disrupt their projects and plans in order to benefit the poor and underprivileged exceeds the limits of state, ordinary moral obligations and have no plausible grounding in war photographer essay moral theory. They argue that the line between the obligatory and california state college, the supererogatory has been unjustifiably erased by new movie release reviews such a principle. In effect, the claim is that an aspirational moral ideal has redrawn the lines of california application essay, real moral obligation. Singer has attempted to reformulate his position so that his theory of new movie, beneficence does not set an overly demanding standard. He maintains that no clear justification exists for california state essay the claim that obligations of ordinary morality do not contain a demanding principle of beneficence, in particular a harm-prevention principle. He apparently would explain the lack of concern often shown for poverty relief as a failure to waiting for godot essay, draw the correct implications from the very principles of beneficence that ordinary morality embraces.

Later in his series of publications on the subject Singer attempted to take account of objections that his principle sets an unduly high standard. He has not given up his strong principle of beneficence, but he has suggested that it might be morally wise and most productive to publicly advocate a lower standardthat is, a weakened principle of beneficence. He therefore proposed a more guarded formulation of the principle, arguing that we should strive for donations of a round percentage of income, such as 10 per cent, which amounts to more than a token donation and yet also is not so high as to make us miserable or turn us into moral saints. State College Essay? This standard, Singer proclaimed, is the writing, minimum that we ought to state college, do to conform to obligations of beneficence. Controversy continues today about how to analyze and evaluate the commitments of a principle of beneficence, including how to formulate limits that reduce required burdens on waiting for godot samuel essay, agents' life plans and make meeting the state essay, obligations of thesis, beneficence a realistic possibility. Various writers have noted that even after many persons have donated generous portions of their income, they could still donate more while living decent lives; and, according to california state college application essay, a strong principle of beneficence, they should donate more. Establishing the theoretical and waiting samuel essay, practical limits of donation and sacrifice is clearly very challenging, and perhaps an impossible ideal. However, it does not follow that we should give up a principle of beneficence. It only follows that establishing the moral limits of the demands of beneficence is profoundly difficult. Liam Murphy has proposed to fix the limits of individual beneficence to essay, meet global problems of reviews, need by using a cooperative principle of fairness in which, in state essay any given circumstance, it must first be determined what each reasonably affluent person must do to contribute a fair share to an optimal outcome.

An individual is only required to aid others beneficently at the level that would produce the best consequences if all in society were to writing a 5 page paper, give their fair share. One is not required to do more even if others fail in their fair-share obligations of beneficence. State College Application? Unlike act-consequentialism, this theory does not demand more of agents when expected compliance by others decreases. Murphy's cooperative principle is intuitively attractive, but it may not have the war photographer essay, necessary moral punch to address issues such as global poverty. Murphy seems right to suggest that large-scale problems requiring beneficence should be conceived as cooperative projects, but his limit on individual obligations seems unlikely to have a practical effect of increasing international aid and the like beyond present commitments and levels.

If, as is to be expected in virtually all situations of global poverty, others fail to comply with their fair-share obligations of beneficence as set out in state essay this theory, it is not clear why each person's obligation is set only by the original calculation of a single fair share. This is not to garden, say that Singer's approach is superior. The more demanding a principle is, the less likely are people to comply with its demands. Also, at college essay, an intuitive level, Murphy seems right that an individual's obligations of beneficence should not increase to fill gaps merely because others are failing to meet their obligations. In his Uehiro Lectures on noah english 1789, Global Poverty, Singer defended his arguments about state college essay beneficence including the public advocacy thesis (see the Other Internet Resources). Here a difference of reviews, emphasis emerged in his theory, together with a somewhat sympathetic response to state college application, Murphy. Writing Page Paper? Singer seems concerned with which social conditions will motivate people to california essay, give, rather than with attempting to determine obligations of beneficence with precision. Singer responds to critics such as Murphy by conceding that perhaps the limit of a 5 page, what we should publicly advocate as a level of giving is no more than a person's fair share of what is needed to relieve poverty and the like. Unless we draw the line here, we might not be able to motivate people to give at all. A fair share is a lower threshold of one's obligations than the obligations Singer originally envisaged, but more realistic.

The emphasis on motivation is presumably intended to give is a more subtle and convincing approach to the nature and california college application, limits of release reviews, beneficence. Wherever the line of precise limits of obligatory beneficence is drawn, the line is likely to be revisionary by drawing a sharper boundary on our obligations than exists in ordinary morality. Singer's proposals, unlike Murphy's, seem to represent a revision of ordinary morality's requirements of beneficence, despite the california state application, faint presence in the history of Western morality of religious obligations of tithing. A variety of proposals regarding the limits of beneficence have been made by philosophers, but no agreement on even a general principle exists. Accordingly, many now doubt that ethical theory or practical deliberation is equipped to establish precise conditions and limits of obligations of beneficence. 5. Liberty-Limiting Beneficence: The Problem of Benefit Paternalism. A still much-discussed issue about beneficence descends historically from Mill's On Liberty , where Mill inquired into the nature and limits of justifiable social control over a 5 page, the individual. He argues that the measure of a person's libertyor personal autonomyis the measure of the person's independence from state application influences that control the person's preferences, thoughts, and behavior. Various principles commonly assumed to be moral principles have been advanced to justify the limitation of individual liberties. Joel Feinberg, who was philosophically close to various of Mill's views, called these principles “liberty-limiting principles.” Mill defended the view that only one principle validly limits liberty.

Feinberg called it the harm principle : A person's liberty (or autonomy) is justifiably restricted to prevent harm to writing a 5 page paper, others caused by that person. California State Essay? Mill and Feinberg agreed that the samuel, principle of paternalism , which renders acceptable certain attempts to benefit another person when the other does not prefer to receive the benefit, is not a morally acceptable liberty-limiting principle. The term paternalism has its roots in college the notion of paternal administrationgovernment as by a father to writing a 5, administer in the way a beneficent father raises his children. The analogy with the father presupposes two features of the paternal role: that the father acts beneficently (that is, in state college application accordance with the interests of his children) and that he makes all or at least some of the decisions relating to his children's welfare, rather than leaving them free to make those decisions. English Language? On this model, “paternalism” may be defined as the intentional overriding of application, one person's known preferences or choices by another person, where the noah webster dissertations on the english language, person who overrides justifies the state college, action by the goal of substantially benefiting or avoiding harm to paper, the person whose preferences or choices are overridden. (Both “benefiting” and “avoiding harm” can here, though not always, be understood as forms of beneficence.) An act of paternalism, then, overrides moral obligations to respect autonomous choice on grounds of beneficence. Philosophers divide sharply over whether some restricted form of paternalism can be justified and, if so, on what basis. One plausible beneficence-based justification of paternalistic actions places benefits on a scale with autonomy interests and balances the two: As a person's interests in autonomy increase and the benefits for that person decrease, the california college, justification of paternalistic action becomes less cogent; conversely, as the benefits for a person increase and beckett, that person's interests in autonomy decrease, the justification of paternalistic action becomes more plausible.

Thus, preventing minor harms or providing minor benefits while deeply disrespecting autonomy lacks plausible justification; but actions that prevent major harms or provide major benefits while only trivially disrespecting autonomy have a highly plausible paternalistic rationale. Though no consensus exists over california college application essay, the justification of paternalism, virtually no one thinks that benefit paternalism can be justified unless at least the following conditions are satisfied: A person is at waiting for godot beckett essay, risk of a significant and preventable harm or loss of a benefit. The paternalistic action has a strong likelihood of california state application, preventing the harm or obtaining the benefit. The projected benefits of the paternalistic action outweigh its risks. The least autonomy-restrictive alternative that will secure the benefits and reduce the risks is adopted. Debates about benefit paternalism have also emerged in an essay on criticism explanation public policy contexts.

Often health policies have the goal of california essay, avoiding a harm or providing a benefit in a population in which most affected parties are not consulted. Some percentage of the population will not support the policy, for example, because they are given no choice in the matter, whereas others will approve the policy. In effect, the new movie release, policy is intended to state application essay, benefit all members of a population without consulting the page paper, preferences of individuals affectedall the while foreseeing that many individuals will reject the imposed control that the policy exerts over their lives. So-called neopaternalists have argued for government policies intended to protect or benefit individuals through shaping or steering their choices without, in fact, altogether disallowing or coercing those choices. Some recommend policies that pursue values that an intended beneficiary already, at least implicitly, holds but cannot realize because of limited capacities, limited resources or limited self-control.

In this context, the individual's own stated preferences, choices, and actions are deemed unreasonable in college essay light of other standards the person is samurai's garden, regarded as embracing. This conception faces the problem that what an informed and competent person chooses to do is generally the best evidence we have of state application, his or her values. For example, if a deeply religious man fails to follow the dietary restrictions of reviews, his religion, although he is in the abstract strongly committed to application, all aspects of the religion, his departures from dietary laws may be the best evidence we have of his true values on the particular matter of dietary restrictions. Because it seems correctshort of counterevidence in particular casesthat competent informed choice is the best evidence of a person's values, a justified paternalism must, among other things, have adequate evidence that this assumption is misguided in any given case. 6. Beneficence in waiting samuel beckett essay Biomedical Ethics. Since the late 1970s, principles of beneficence have been a mainstay of the literature of biomedical ethics. Persons engaged in medical practice, research, and public health appreciate that risks of harm presented by california state essay interventions must often be weighed against possible benefits for patients, subjects, and the public. War Photographer? Their professional obligations are deeply informed by their commitments to state application, prevent or reduce harm and to produce a positive balance of goods over inflicted harms. Beneficence has played a major role in a central conceptual issue about the nature and goals of medicine as a social practice. If the end of medicine is healing, a goal of beneficence, then arguably medicine is fundamentally a beneficent undertaking.

If so, beneficence grounds and waiting beckett essay, determines the professional obligations and virtues of the physician. Authors such as Edmund Pellegrino write as if beneficence is the sole foundational principle of professional medical ethics. In this theory, medical beneficence is oriented exclusively to college essay, the end of healing and not to any other form of pope, benefit. The category of medical benefits does not, for Pellegrino, include items such as providing fertility controls (unless for the prevention and maintenance of health and bodily integrity), performing purely cosmetic surgery, or actively helping a patient to effect a merciful death by california college application the active hastening of death. This characterization of the ends of medicine allows Pellegrino to limit severely what counts as a medical benefit for page patients: Benefit in medicine is limited to healing and related activities such as caring for and preventing injury or disease.

This thesis is california essay, controversial. Alexander Explanation? Even if healing and the like are interpreted broadly, medicine does not seem to have such precise boundaries to many other writers. If beneficence is a general moral principle and if physicians are positioned to supply many forms of benefit, there is no manifest reason why physicians' hands are tied to the single benefit of healing, even in their role as medical professionals. The range of benefits that might be considered relevant seems broader and could include prescribing pharmaceutical products or devices that prevent fertility (where there is no healing-related purpose), providing purely cosmetic surgery for college aesthetic (by contrast to reconstructive) reasons, helping patients write realistic living wills, complying with terminally ill patients' requests for physician-assistance in alexander pope an essay on criticism explanation dying by hastening death, and california application essay, the like. If these are bona fide medical benefits, then how far does the range of benefits extend? If a physician runs a company that manufactures powered wheel chairs for the elderly, does this activity supply a medical benefit? When physicians consult with an insurance company about cost-effective treatments that save their patients money, is samurai's thesis, this activity a beneficent component of the practice of medicine? Controversy over california state college application essay, the ends of medicine requires decisions about writing a 5 what is to count as the practice of medicine and, derivatively, what counts as medical beneficence. Controversy appears not only in the literature of biomedical ethics, but also in some split decisions of the state college essay, U. S. For Godot Samuel Essay? Supreme Courtmost notably in Gonzales v. Oregon , a case dealing with physician-hastened death. The majority decision in this case asserts that there is no consensus among health care professionals about the precise boundaries of the legitimate practice of medicine , a legal notion similar to the medical-ethics notion of the proper ends of medicine.

The court notes that there is reasonable disagreement in the community of physicians regarding the appropriate process for determining the boundaries of medical practice and that there is disagreement about the extent to which the government should be involved in drawing boundaries when physicians themselves disagree. This court opinion allows that, depending on california, state law, a physician may legitimately assist in writing a 5 paper various ways to help bring about the death of a terminally ill patient who has explicitly and competently requested this assistance from the physician. 6.2 Harms and application, Benefits in samurai's thesis Health Care. A health professional's conception of both harm to and benefit for a patient can differ sharply from that of the patient, but the health professional's understandings of california state college, benefits also often depend on a 5, the patient's view of what constitutes a benefit or a worthwhile risk. Different patients take different views about what constitutes a harm and california college essay, a benefit, and writing a 5 page, when each view is reasonable it is morally unacceptable to maintain that the california state, notions of medical benefit and harm are objectively independent of the patient's judgment. Physician-hastened death by request of the patient controversially characterized as physician-assisted suicideis again a prominent example of this problem.

Physicians and nurses have long worried that patients who forgo life-sustaining treatment with the intention of dying are killing themselves and thesis, that health professionals are assisting in their suicide. These worries have recently receded in significance in biomedical ethics, because there is now a consensus in law and ethics that it is never a moral violation to withhold or withdraw a medical treatment that has been validly refused. This consensus began to be developed with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan in 1976 and california application essay, eventually was formed around U. S. Supreme Court decisions, especially the Cruzan Case of 1990. The writings of numerous philosophers and lawyers contributed to the formation of this consensus. A clear part of the consensus is that it is a moral violation not to withhold or withdraw a validly refused treatment. If death is hastened in webster on the this way by a physician's omission or action, there can be no moral objection to essay, what has been done, and a physician's cooperation can rightly be viewed as merciful and benevolent.

However, this problem has been replaced by another: Is it harmful or beneficial to help a competent patient who has requested a hastened death? In addition to vexed questions about the samurai's, purported distinction between killing and letting die, the california state college application essay, issue presses the question of what counts as a benefit and what counts as a harm. Is requested death in the face of miserable suffering a benefit for some patients while a harm for other patients? When is it a benefit, and when a harm? Is the samurai's thesis, answer to this question determined by the method used to bring about death--for example, withdrawal of treatment by contrast to use of lethal medication? 6.3 Social Beneficence and state, Public Policy. A number of controversial issues in waiting for godot samuel essay biomedical ethics concern how public policy could, and should, change if obligations of state college application essay, social beneficence were given more strength in policy formulation than they have traditionally been afforded. The foundations of public policy regarding organ procurement provide an instructive example.

Established legal and policy precedents in many countries require express consent by a decedent before death or by the family after death. A near absolute right of autonomy to decide about the disposition of organs and tissues has been the prevailing norm. However, this approach impairs the thesis, efficient collection of needed tissues and organs, and many people die as a result of the shortage of organs. The scarcity of organs and tissues and the inefficiency of the system have prompted a spate of proposals for reform of the current system of procurement, with the goal of creating more space for social beneficence. One policy proposal with a notably strong social-beneficence commitment is the california state essay, routine retrieval of organs and tissues.

In this system of procurement, a community is samurai's, permitted to, and encouraged to, routinely collect organs and tissues from the deceased, unless the dead person had previously registered his or her objection to the system with the state. The routine retrieval of tissues and organs from the california state, deceased is unjustified on traditional grounds of respect for autonomy. However, advocates of the policy of routine retrieval argue that members of a community have an obligation to provide other persons with objects of lifesaving value when no cost to themselves is required. That is, the justification is in beneficence, not respect for autonomy. The debate will continue for many years about war photographer essay whether beneficence or respect for autonomy should prevail in public policy governing organ retrieval. California? Advocates of the current system argue that individual and family rights of consent should retain dominance. Release Reviews? Advocates of routine retrieval argue that traditional social priorities involving beneficence in conflict with autonomy have been wrongly structured.

Most contributors to the literature on the subject agree that the present situation of low-level organ-procurement is california college application essay, morally unsatisfactory and in war photographer essay need of some measure of reform. 6.4 Social Beneficence and Social Justice. Some of the most important issues in the ethics of health and health care today are widely classified as issues of social justice. However, at california college application, the hands of many writers, social justice is notably similar to social beneficence. The underlying moral problem in global ethics is how to structure both the global order and national systems that affect health so that burdens are avoided, benefits are provided, and then both are fairly distributed using a threshold condition of equitable levels of health and access to alexander on criticism explanation, health care. Globalization has brought a realization that problems of protecting health and providing beneficial services are international in nature and that their alleviation will require a restructuring of the global system. John Rawls's A Theory of Justice has been an enormously influential work in discussions of these problems in biomedical ethics. California State College Essay? Rawls argues that a social arrangement forming a political state is a communal effort to advance the good of all in the society. His starting assumptions are layered with beneficent, egalitarian goals of making the unequal situation of the naturally disadvantaged members of society both better and more equal.

His recognition of a positive societal obligation to eliminate or reduce barriers that prevent fair opportunity and that correct or compensate for various disadvantages has implications for discussions of both beneficence and war photographer, justice in health care, although Rawls himself never pursued these health issues. Rawls's theory has influenced many writers on moral problems of health and biomedical ethics, including Norman Daniels, Thomas Pogge, Martha Nussbaum, and Madison Powers and Ruth Faden. One of Daniels' main questions is “How can we meet health needs fairly under reasonable limits to resources committed to the task?” The “fairly” part of this formulation may be justice-based, but the notion of “reasonable limits to resources” is closely tied to application essay, the problems of the limits of beneficence mentioned previously. Webster On The English Language? Daniels argues that because health is california college application, affected by many social factors, theories of release reviews, justice should not center entirely on access to health care, but also on california college essay, the need to reduce health inequalities by essay improving social conditions that affect the health of societies, such as having clean water, adequate nutrition, and general sanitation. Pogge views the well-being of the application, worst-off members of global society as the proper starting point for writing page paper a practical theory of california essay, justice, but his theory can also be expressed as an argument from webster on the language social beneficence. California State College Application Essay? Pogge has been concerned with the sweep of global poverty and its impact on health and welfarean interest almost identical to the theories of Singer and Powers and Faden. The consequences of extreme poverty for health are well-documented, and these consequences inform Pogge's and Powers and Faden's theories of both basic well-being and justice.

Among other things, these theories assess the degree to which institutional structures can be expected to fulfill the mandates of the theory. They demand that persons have access to basic goods of housing, food, and samurai's thesis, health care. Recently, so-called “capabilities theory” has, at the hands of some writers, merged concerns of justice and beneficence. This type of theory focuses on distributions intended to enable persons to reach certain functional levels essential for state college application essay a flourishing life that is protected by social institutions, The idea is to start with an understanding of health and individual well-being and a 5 paper, then to connect that account to basic capabilities for achieving levels of functioning essential to well-beingthrough, for example, proper nutrition and access to health care. Some core capabilities are bodily health, ability to play, ability to affiliate socially, freedom of movement, and adequate educational level. Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum are advocates of a capabilities theory. Some writers closely connected to california college application, bioethics and health policy have moved beyond capabilities theory with a twist toward beneficence and well-being.

Powers and Faden provide a theory closely connected to global health policy. Samurai's Thesis? They start with a basic premise: Social justice is concerned with human well-beingnot only health, but what they call six distinct, core dimensions of well-being. The six are health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and california state application essay, self-determination. Each of these dimensions is an independent concern of justice. While this list of a 5, six dimensions is in some respects similar to Nussbaum'sfor example, “attachment” resembles what Nussbaum calls “affiliation” Powers and Faden reject the language of capabilities as misleading and wide of the target of a theory of justice. College Application Essay? Theirs is a list of essential core dimensions of well-being, not core capabilities. Being healthy, being secure, and being respected are desirable states of being, not merely capabilities or functionings. For example, we want not merely the capability to be well-nourished, but to be well-nourished. Thesis? Justice is concerned with the achievement of well-being, not merely achieving the college, capabilities to pursue it. In this account, the justice of societies and of the global order can be judged by how well they effect these well-being dimensions in war photographer their political structures and social practices.

The job of justice is to secure a sufficient level of each dimension for each person and to alleviate the state college essay, social structures that cause the corresponding forms of ill-being. This theory of well-being and its place in moral theory and social policy could also be expressed in terms of the role of social beneficence. Business ethics is an essay on criticism explanation, a second area of state application essay, applied ethics in which questions about beneficence have emerged as central. Hume's immediate successor in sentiment theory, Adam Smith, held a important view about the role and place of benevolence that has influenced a number of writers in business ethics. Samurai's Thesis? Smith argued that the wealth of nations and the well-being of state application essay, their citizens are dependent upon social cooperationfundamentally, political and economic cooperationbut that this realm is not dependent on the benevolence of moral relations. Smith proposes that it would be vain for us to expect benevolence in market societies. Waiting For Godot Beckett? In commercial transactions the only successful strategy in motivating persons is to appeal to personal advantage: Never expect benevolence from a butcher, brewer, or baker; expect from them only california application essay, a regard to their own interest. Market societies operate not by concerns of humanity and benevolence, but from self-love. Several problems in business ethics are attempts to come to grips with Smith's view. Discussions of the role of the corporation in society and the very purpose of a corporation as a social institution are examples. It is not disputed that the purpose of a for-profit corporation is to make a profit for stockholders, but there is an intense debate about new movie release whether maximizing stockholder profits is the sole legitimate purpose of state college essay, corporationsas Milton Friedman and others have arguedand whether truly beneficent corporate conduct is justifiable.

This question is normative, but there is also the war photographer essay, question of moral psychology raised by Smith: Is it reasonable to expect benevolent acts from the business community? Does beneficence have any place in the world of business as we know it? Corporate social programs often appear to involve a mixture of limited beneficence and self-interested goals such as developing and sustaining relationships with customers. An example is found in public utilities' programs to help customers pay for california state college essay electricity, gas, oil, phone service, and the like. These programs often decrease rather than increase corporate profits. War Photographer? They are, in effect, a form of corporate philanthropy. The programs locate and attempt to remedy the root causes of bill nonpayment, which typically involve financial distress. The programs also seek to rescue people in the community who are in unfortunate circumstances because of industrial injury, the ill health of a spouse or child, drug dependency, and state application essay, the like. Webster Dissertations On The Language 1789? The company may even pay for consumer advocates, who are social workers trained to deal with customers and their problems. California College Essay? These programs, by design, make life better for various members of the community who have suffered misfortune.

They may not be entirely motivated by alexander pope explanation benevolence, however, because they may also be designed to achieve a positive public image as well as to receive payment for overdue bills. Some firms have charitable programs that seem to be cases of pure beneficencethat is, not ones admixed with forms of outreach that will help the company. Money is taken directly out of profits, with no expected return of benefits. College Application? It has been questioned, however, whether programs of even this description are instances of pure benevolence. In the precedent U. Webster English Language? S. case of A. P. Smith Manufacturing v. Barlow (1953), a judge determined that a beneficent charitable donation to Princeton University by the A. P. Smith Co. was a legitimate act of beneficence by responsible corporate officers. California State College Essay? However, the judge acknowledged that such beneficence may not be pure beneficence, but rather an act taken in samurai's garden thesis the interest of the corporation by building its public image and esteem. In effect, the judge suggests that such a gift, while beneficent, may not derive from entirely benevolent motives. If beneficent acts by state college application corporations are nothing more than clever ways to maximize profits, then these actions seem to satisfy Friedman's conception. Whatever the truth about businesses' motives, a separate question is whether businesses have obligations of beneficent action. Stakeholder theory is an example of an webster dissertations english approach that answers in the affirmative.

In the classical profit-to-stockholder view, stockholders' interests were supreme, but what about the interests of california state college application essay, other stakeholders, particularly those whose efforts are necessary for a firm's survival and flourishing? Who deserves to benefit? A stakeholder is any individual or group that can affect or benefit, or be affected by or benefited by, a business organization. For Godot Samuel? Stakeholders include customers, employees, suppliers, communities, consultants, and stockholders. Stakeholder theory is commonly regarded as a theory of corporate responsibilitythe theory that managers of a firm have obligations to a specified group of state application essay, stakeholders.

Many of these obligations are ones of beneficence, especially with regard to employees and garden, other stockholders. Stockholder theory, by contrast, is the theory that managers have obligationsconceived as fiduciary dutiesonly to california, stockholder interests. In contemporary business ethics it is now widely held that corporate responsibility requires some form of stakeholder perspective, but this perspective has not been adequately developed, because there may be additional obligations of beneficence to contribute to social awareness and public policy even when the affected community is not truly a stakeholder. But do corporations have obligations of beneficence to samurai's garden thesis, some larger community? Many corporations have answered yes to this question. In a statement of california college application, “The Johnson and Johnson Way,” the Johnson and Johnson Company credo, it is said that Johnson and a 5 paper, Johnson is responsible to the communities in california application which it thrives, and explanation, indeed to california state college application essay, the world community. Samurai's Thesis? The company asserts an obligation to be good citizens, including offering the support of charities, the encouragement of civic progress, the bettering of public health, and the improvement of education. Johnson and Johnson and many other companies assert that they have obligations to these ends, but to many writers in business ethics this claim of obligations is either misguided or overstated. College Application? They regard such moral demands as moral ideals or institutional commitments, especially if they reach out to the world community. Paternalism is often found in the practices of business and in government regulation of business. For example, many businesses require employees to deduct money from their salary for a retirement account; they may also deduct salary money to war photographer, pay for a life insurance policy.

If employees do not want these “benefits,” they are not free to reject them. Paternalism is here assumed to be an appropriate liberty-limiting principle. Another commonplace example comes from the construction industry and the chemical industry. California? If an employee wishes not to wear a particular suit, mask, or other protective device, the pope an essay on criticism, company (also the government) will compel it anyway, often (though not always) for paternalistic reasons. An ongoing example of paternalism is the restriction for paternalistic reasons (there might be other reasons as well) of various pictures, literature, or informationoften violent depictionson the internet, in bookstores, and in video stores. Customers may wish to purchase or receive information about these products, but paternalism thwarts their preferences. Arguments are put forward maintaining that those exposed to violent conduct will harm themselves by such exposurefor example, pornography might reinforce their emotional problems or render them incapable of love and other distinctively human relationships. A classic problem of paternalism in business ethics derives from the principle of caveat emptor Latin for california state college application “let the buyer beware.” This property-law-derived principle is a general principle governing sales: A buyer is responsible for determining any unfitness in a product and a 5 paper, is not due any form of refund or exchange unless the seller has actively concealed the unfitness. The buyer is free to make the california state college application essay, purchase or not make it. Paternalistic restrictions on purchasing have the objective that buyers not harm themselves or not fail to receive benefits that they otherwise might not receive.

For example, the control and new movie reviews, inspection of pharmaceutical products and controlled substancesthrough government policies and licensed pharmacieshas often been justified by appeal to paternalism. Many believe that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the U.S. is fundamentally a paternalistic agency that operates to protect the public even while some members of the public do not approve of the protections afforded. As the marketplace for products has grown complex and the products more sophisticated, buyers have become more dependent upon salespersons to state college essay, know their products and to tell the truth about them. An enduring question in business ethics is whether a salesperson's role should be viewed as that of paternalistic protector of the interests of the buyer. Suppose, for example, that a consumer wants a sprinkler system in war photographer his yard to california state college essay, water his grove of alexander an essay, evergreens. He loves the california state application essay, sound and look of sprinklers. However, these sprinklers are worthless for appropriate watering of the samurai's thesis, roots of his evergreens: The owner needs drip-hose for his large collection of pine, spruce, cedar, and cypress. Should a salesperson insist on state college application, selling only drip-hose, refusing to sell sprinkler heads; or should the writing page, salesperson acquiesce to the customer's strong preference for sprinklers? Traditionally salespersons have not viewed their obligations of beneficence in this way, but perhaps paternalistic beneficence would be a commendable change of practice? Adler, Matthew D., 2012, Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis , New York: Oxford University Press. Arneson, Richard J., 2004, “Moral Limits on the Demands of Beneficence?” in california college application essay The Ethics of Assistance , Deen K. Chatterjee (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beauchamp, Tom L., and Childress, James F., 2013, Principles of Biomedical Ethics , 7 th edition, New York: Oxford University Press, Chapter 6. Release? Braybrooke, David, 2003, “A Progressive Approach to california state college essay, Personal Responsibility for Global Beneficence,” The Monist , 86: 30122. Cullity, Garrett, 2007, “Beneficence.” In R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper, and J. Noah Webster Dissertations English Language? R. McMillan (eds.), Principles of Health Care Ethics (2nd ed.), pp. 1926, Chichester, West Sussex, UK; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. , 2004, The Moral Demands of california state essay, Affluence , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Daniels, Norman, 2006, “Equity and Population Health: Toward a Broader Bioethics Agenda.” Hastings Center Report , 36: 2235. , 1998, “Is There a Right to Health Care and, if so, What does it Encompass?,” in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics , Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 31628. Donaldson, Thomas J., and Preston, L. E., 1995, “The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications,” Academy of Management Review , 20: 6591.

Egonsson, Dan, 1999, “Local Solidarity,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice , 2: 14958. Feinberg, Joel, 1988, The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law , 4 volumes, New York: Oxford University Press. Fishkin, James A, 1982, The Limits of Obligation , New Haven: Yale University Press. Freeman, R. Edward, 1984, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach , Boston: Pitman. Gert, Bernard, 2005, Morality , New York: Oxford University Press. Gert, Bernard, Charles M. Culver, and K. Noah Webster On The English Language? Danner Clouser, 2006, Bioethics: A Systematic Approach , New York: Oxford University Press.

Gert, Bernard, 2008, “The Definition of california state essay, Morality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/morality-definition/. Griffin, James, 1986, Well-Being , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hume, David, 1751, An Enquiry concerning the Principles of essay, Morals , Tom L. Beauchamp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hurley, Paul, 2003, “Fairness and Beneficence,” Ethics , 113: 841864. Kant, Immanuel, Ethical Philosophy , second edition, James W. Ellington (trans.), Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1994. Levine, Robert J., 2005, “The National Commission's Ethical Principles with Special Attention to Beneficence”. In J. F. Childress, E. M. Meslin, and H. T. Shapiro (Eds.), Belmont Revisited: Ethical Principles for Research with Human Subjects , pp. California College? 126135, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Noah Dissertations Language 1789? Livnat, Yuval, 2004, “On the Nature of Benevolence,” Journal of college, Social Philosophy , 35: 304317. Release Reviews? Mack, Eric, 2002, “Equality, Benevolence, and Responsiveness to Agent-Relative Value,” Social Philosophy and Policy , 19: 314341. Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism and On Liberty , in college application the Collected Works of John Stuart Mill , Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969.

Miller, Richard W., 2004, “Beneficence, Duty, and Distance,” Philosophy Public Affairs , 32: 35783. Murphy, Liam B., 1993, “The Demands of Beneficence,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 22: 26792. For Godot Essay? , 2000, Moral Demands in california state college application Nonideal Theory , Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Narveson, Jan, 2003, “We Don't Owe Them a Thing! A Tough-Minded but Soft-Hearted View of Aid to the Faraway Needy,” The Monist , 86: 41933. Nussbaum, Martha C., and Amartya Sen (eds.), 1993, The Quality of webster dissertations on the 1789, Life , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Pellegrino, Edmund, and David Thomasma, 1988, For the Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care , New York: Oxford University Press. California Application Essay? Pellegrino, Edmund, 1994, “The Four Principles and The Doctor-Patient Relationship: The Need For A Better Linkage,” in Principles of Health Care Ethics , Raanan Gillon (ed.), 1 st ed.

London: John Wiley Sons. Waiting For Godot Samuel? Pogge, Thomas W. (ed.), 2007, Freedom from Poverty as a Human Right: Who Owes What to the Very Poor? , Oxford: Oxford University Press. (ed.), 2001, Global Justice , London: Blackwell Publishers. California State Application Essay? , 2005, “Human Rights and Global Health: A Research Program.” Metaphilosophy , 36: 182209. , 2002, World Poverty and Human Rights , Cambridge: Polity Press. Powers, Madison, and Ruth R. Faden, 2006, Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy , New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Henry S., 2012, Moral Entanglements: The Ancillary-Care Obligations of new movie release reviews, Medical Researchers , New York: Oxford University Press. Sen, Amartya, 1992, Inequality Reexamined , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Singer, Peter, 1972, “Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1: 22943. California College Essay? , 1993, Practical Ethics , 2d edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. , 2009, The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to waiting for godot beckett essay, End World Poverty , New York: Random House. Slote, Michael A., 1977, “The Morality of state essay, Wealth,” in World Hunger and Moral Obligation , W. Aiken and H. LaFollette (eds.), Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 12447. Smith, Adam, 1776, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the samurai's thesis, Wealth of Nations , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Thaler, Richard H., and Cass R. Application? Sunstein, 2003, “Libertarian Paternalism,” American Economics Review , 93: 17579 U. S. Supreme Court, 2006, Gonzales v. Oregon , 546 U.S. 243. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

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Satyen Kale Thesis Writing #8212; 522882. Application? Satyen Kale Thesis Writing. Efficient Algorithms Using The Multiplicative Weights #8212; Satyen Kale In this thesis , we explore applications of the Multiplicative Weights method in the .. and are written in the form of a square symmetric matrix X. We have the Efficient Algorithms using the Multiplicative Weights #8212; Satyen Kale Satyen Kale . Ph.D. thesis . Princeton Tech Report TR-804-07, 2007. Algorithms based on noah webster language 1789, convex optimization, especially linear and state essay, semidefinite programming, Satyen Kale #8212; Google Scholar Citations Satyen Kale . Senior Research B Barak, K Chaudhuri, C Dwork, S Kale, F McSherry, K Talwar M Dudik, D Hsu, S Kale, N Karampatziakis, J Langford, L Reyzin, T Zhang S Kale. Dissertation Abstracts International 68 (10), 2007. 59, 2007. Sanjeev Arora #8212; cs.Princeton Sanjeev Arora, Elad Hazan, and Satyen Kale . Proc. Essay? IEEE Foundations of Computer Science, 2004.

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Film Review on Million Dollar Baby- Topic Euthanasia. . Phil 160 10/8/2008 Euthanasia Film Report: Million Dollar Baby The Million Dollar Baby movie focuses around a young lady named Maggie and a amateur boxing trainer. The whole movie is based around the state application essay, career of both characters, and the issue of euthanasia comes into for godot samuel, play during the last part of the movie. State Essay! Another opponent illegally hits the boxer, Maggie, and Maggie then hits her head on the stool, and subsequently, she is paralyzed from the neck down. The issues of euthanasia becomes an issue when Maggie gets tired of being in a vegetative state after the productive life she had been living as a boxer. For Godot Samuel! Dunn her trainer gets into a conversation with Maggie, this turns into an issue of college, whether or not she wanted to writing paper live beyond her natural life. She argued that she was only alive because of the respirators, and application that she had lived life to the fullest already. Dunn, a Catholic, disagrees with actively or passively letting her die. In all, his faith is pope on criticism explanation conflicted with his understanding of the pain she was going through.

He was empathetic with her state of state college application, quadriplegia. She was discontented but could not kill herself, so she tried to bite her tongue as a way to bleed herself to death. Many topics discussed in class about euthanasia were brought up in the movie. For example, did Maggie have a personhood while in dissertations language 1789 her state, or would helping Maggie die faster would that be active or passive? Dunn, finally unplugs Maggie’s respirator, and california state essay injects a lot of war photographer essay, adrenaline into her. Words: 633 - Pages: 3. . Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone The brainchild of state college application, writer Joanne K. Rowling, the Harry Potter book series became the big hit that in 2001, the first volume, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, made it to the big screen. This motion picture, directed by Chris Columbus is all about a young boy wizard and his adventures at for godot samuel a school for wizardry. Harry (played by Daniel Radcliffe) is a miserable 11-year-old orphan who one day learns that he is actually a wizard. He reports to the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and makes friends in Hermione (Emma Watson) and Ron (Rupert Grint), but also enemies in the form of fellow student Draco Malfoy (Tom Felton) and the evil Lord Voldemort (Richard Bremmer).

His adventures started when Lord Voldemort tries to defeat him, as the college essay, young boy survived his attack when he was still a baby leaving him a lightning mark on his forehead. Lord Voldemort killed Harry’s parents and he was protected by his mother who shielded him from the attack. Albus Dumbledore and pope an essay on criticism explanation Rubeus Hagrid help get to state application essay know him in times of danger. Harry is known as the “chosen one” because Voldemort’s curse rebounded and left him only with scar. Harry also becomes a star in Quidditch, a popular wizard sport in which the noah dissertations language 1789, players chase balls through the air on custom broomsticks. Chris Columbus is such a great director. He and his production team show hard work to make this film. Words: 387 - Pages: 2. . Black Swan Black Swan is state application essay a movie about a girl who is playing the waiting essay, part of the swan queen in the interpretation of Swan Lake by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. She needs the man to fall in love with her in order to break the california college essay, spell, but he falls in noah dissertations english love with the wrong girl, and so she killed herself. In this movie every piece of music intensifies each of the 27 scenes, without the music the movie is not perceived the same way.

Such as every time the daughter, Nina is in interaction with her mother there is the use of leitmotif, where the same music is played although it faster and slower at different times. State College Application! And since she is in reviews some sort of conflict with her mother throughout each of the scenes they are both present in the music is california state college more of an intense beat that reflects the conflict(s) between the two. There are many people who took part in release reviews making this movie a success and a big part of that was the workers behind the music, such as: Clint Mansell – film score composer Brian Emrich and Craig Henighan – sound designers Nancy Allen – music editor Jim Black and Gabe Hilfer – music supervisors All of the music of Black Swan was scored by Clint Mansell in california state college essay which they all ended up containing “Swan Lake” written by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Apothesis: Danka Jane: Written and performed written by: Tom Rowlands By Pete Min performed by: The Chemical Brothers Outside the Lines: The White Easton: Written by: Praveen written by: Alec Storey Sharma Travis. Words: 317 - Pages: 2. . Film Review Barbara Rushing ARTS/100 December 10, 2012 Brenda Durden Do the Right Thing was produced and alexander pope an essay explanation directed in state college application essay 1989 by Spike Lee (The IUPUI Arts and Humanities Institute, 2012).

Spike Lee is garden thesis known for creating controversy with his movies. Lee was a pioneer of capturing and bringing attention to societal issues. Lee’s primary focus for many of his movies is to address racial stigmas, stereotypes, and issues between races. Consequently, Do the Right Thing is debatable for its portrayal of the racial tensions in Brooklyn, New York (Smith, Turner Classic Movies Film Articles, 2012). The major themes Lee tries to california state essay convey through this film are the day-to-day lifestyles of garden, people in Brooklyn, a community struggling without leadership, and the ethnic tensions within the community. Lee effectively relays these themes to the audience through realism by depicting the period, showing the lack of leadership and state college application essay community togetherness through a host of scenarios, which leads to writing page paper the destruction of the neighborhood pizza shop that had been a part of community for technically three decades. Lee also mastered the art of demonstrating the lifestyles and attitudes of the community through music specific the application essay, era and the ethnic upbringing, by using prompts that give the for godot samuel beckett, illusion of how hot the temperatures were, which lends itself to the mounting tension among racial divide.

An overview of the film or performance Do the Right Thing is a movie that takes. Words: 1117 - Pages: 5. . A million dollar lesson by Petey Parker A cab driver taught me a million dollar lesson in california application essay customer satisfaction and expectation. Motivational speakers charge thousands of dollars to impart his kind of training to corporate executives and staff. Writing A 5 Page Paper! It cost me a $12 taxi ride. I had flown into Dallas for california state application, the sole purpose of calling on a client. Time was of the essence and my plan included a quick turnaround trip from and alexander explanation back to application the airport. Waiting For Godot! A spotless cab pulled up.

The driver rushed to open the passenger door for california state application essay, me and essay made sure I was comfortably seated before he closed the door. State! As he got in the driver’s seat, he mentioned that the neatly folded Wall Street Journal next to webster english language 1789 me for my use. He then showed me several tapes and asked me what type of music I would enjoy. State College! Well! I looked around for a “Candid Camera!” Wouldn’t you? I could not believe the service I was receiving! I took the opportunity to say, “Obviously you take great pride in your work. Explanation! You must have a story to tell.” “You bet,” he replied, “I used to college application be in Corporate America. But I got tired of thinking my best would never be good enough.

I decided to find my niche in life where I could feel proud of being the best I could be. Samurai's! I knew I would never be a rocket scientist, but I love driving cars, being of application essay, service and feeling like I have done a full day’s work and done it well. I evaluate my personal assets and… wham! I became a cab driver. New Movie Release! One thing I know for sure, to be good in my business I could simply. Words: 746 - Pages: 3. . ------------------------------------------------- Review of John Q. College Application! John Q is an pope an essay explanation, emotionally-packed movie that surrounds the unfortunate medical circumstances of John, played by Denzel Washington, and his son. The purpose of the film was to raise the many issues surrounding poor health care in the United States, and even less empathy from hospital administration and insurance companies. After John’s son collapses at a baseball game, the doctors diagnose him as having a heart that is too large for his body and declare that he must receive an california application essay, immediate transplant to survive. Quickly, the hospital administration informs John that his insurance plan does not cover such an operation and an immediate payment of $100,000 must be made just to get his son’s name on webster english the donor list. The overall goal of the movie is to communicate the importance of health care reform and the problems surrounding the current health care system with employer-sponsored health insurance.

Within the first half hour of the movie, the villain becomes clear: “it’s all the california college application, fault of a healthcare system that caters to english the rich and state college well-insured middle classes while denying quality care — or even life itself — to the uninsured and to poor people” (Lockard). This villain becomes magnified through the beckett essay, events of the state application, plot; whereby, the employer has changed John’s insurance plan without notification and the hospital administrators and doctors are unsympathetic towards the pleas of the new movie release reviews, family. California College Essay! Through the use. Words: 565 - Pages: 3. . Title: | Pride and Prejudice | Release Date: | November 11, 2005 (Limited) November 23, 2005 | Genre: | Romance, Drama | Director: | Joe Wright | Writer: | Deborah Moggach (from the writing a 5, novel by Jane Austen) | Cast: | Keira Knightley, Matthew MacFadyen, Brenda Blethyn, Donald Sutherland, Jena Malone, Judi Dench, Tom Hollander, Rosamund Pike, Talulah Riley, Penelope Wilton, Simon Woods | Studio: | Focus Features | Film REVIEW Pride Prejudice Film „Pride and Prejudice” was directed by Joe Wright in 2005 based on the Jane Austen novel of the same name. (It was originally titled „First Impression”. However, Austen found the title „Pride and Prejudice” more appropriate). This film is very well known also as the Jane Austen’s novel. State College Essay! During her lifetime, Austen's books brought her only noah webster dissertations on the language 1789 a few positive reviews, they were published anonymously, and her work was admired only by a literary elite. Almost 200 years after it was written, Pride And Prejudice is now probably the most popular novel in English literature.

The film is college application set in new movie release reviews 18th century England, where marriage is extremely important for girls from state application essay less-than-wealthy families. Bennet family, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. Bennet and their five daughters (Jane, Elizabeth, Mary, Catherine, Lydia) live in comparative financial independence as gentry on a working farm in rural England. When a wealthy young gentleman, Charles Bingley, occupies the nearby estate, Mrs. War Photographer! Bennet sees an opportunity for her.

Words: 665 - Pages: 3. . Bianca Washington Professor Ruiz English 0990 4 March 2013 Just Married Just Married (2003) directed by california state Shawn Levy and written by Sam Harper is a romantic comedy. The two main characters are played by Ashton Kutcher and Brittany Murphy. These two individuals have such great chemistry that it shows throughout the whole movie. War Photographer Essay! This film is rated pg13 and is appropriate for teens. The acting in the film was really good and believable. There was many parts in the movie that kept me laughing.

Characterization is very important in essay the movie because the actors have to connect to each other and also to their own characters. Samurai's Thesis! Out of all the reviews that I have seen I have only found one positive review. I don’t know why because in my opinion the movie was not that bad to application me. It was not my favorite but I enjoyed watching it. Essay! Many of the california state essay, reviews talked about the movie having old jokes and war photographer that the characters didn’t have any chemistry. This movie is pretty old so the jokes are played out now but back then it was just immature humor that people liked to watch. The characters did shout at each other a lot in the movie but that is college essay just there role in the movie. I feel that many of the war photographer essay, reviewers were hoping for more inappropriate scenes and since this movie didn’t have enough of that they didn’t approve of it. John J. Puccio was one of the reviewers and state application he says “The movie is deceptively awful. It stars two attractive charming people who are not given a thing to work with in a.

Words: 307 - Pages: 2. . Review of the war photographer essay, film The film, which really starts a few years before 1492 and closures a few years after the fact, begins off with a great deal of grave and california college essay traditionally successful scene-setting as Columbus' child and biographer, Fernando, reviews his father, the visionary of inconceivable dreams. The myth of Columbus-as-legend propagated in 1492: Conquest of Paradise just on the grounds that I didn't generally think about chronicled correctness. But rather I focused around the moderate moving plot line or the motion picture's sensational enhancements. With such a lazy sympathy toward history, it is not hard to see how 1492: Conquest of Paradise's over-rearrangements of history went unnoticed. It is this present exposition's objective to analyze how the film depicts the Tainos and Columbus' connection to one another, and hope to measure up these depictions to different authentic records to noah language perceive how the motion picture sustains the homogeneous history of civilization by keeping Columbus free from any accuse that Spain's colonization involved. State College! The Columbus-as-legend myth remains to a great extent in place in spite of the motion picture's endeavor to alexander an essay on criticism make him a more mind boggling character. Examples of historical accuracy I want to travel all over the seas, the college, father tells the young Fernando as they remained in war photographer essay attractive profile looking at the western skyline. I want to get behind the weather.Give or take 45 minutes and a few throne-room scenes later, Columbus.

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Just wait till you see it, says Grady Travis (Jon Bernthal) to Norm, with a bitter snarl. Just wait till you see what a man can do to another man. Like the Sherman tank crew who need to harden Norm, and quick, Fury wants to rub your face in mud and guts. It isn't entertaining, exactly, but it is intensely, joltingly visceral. It hasn't got much plot, but exists instead in an endless nightmarish present, where every option is reduced to kill or be killed. The one last stand. Words: 352 - Pages: 2. . Ang Lee's Life of Pi is a miraculous achievement of storytelling and california application a landmark of release, visual mastery.

Inspired by california state college application a worldwide best seller that many readers must have assumed was unfilmable, it is a triumph over its difficulties. The story involves the 227 days that its teenage hero spends drifting across the Pacific in a lifeboat with a Bengal tiger. They find themselves in the same boat after an amusing and colorful prologue, which in itself could have been enlarged into war photographer essay, an exciting family film. State Application Essay! Then it expands into new movie release, a parable of survival, acceptance and adaptation. The story begins in a small family zoo in Pondicherry, India, where the boy christened Piscine is raised.

Piscine translates from French to English as swimming pool, but in california state college an India where many more speak English than French, his playmates of course nickname him pee. Waiting Beckett Essay! Determined to put an end to this, he adopts the name Pi, demonstrating an uncanny ability to california state application essay write down that mathematical constant that begins with 3.14 and never ends. The zoo goes broke, and writing a 5 page paper Pi's father puts his family and a few valuable animals on a ship bound for Canada. In a bruising series of falls, a zebra, an application essay, orangutan, a hyena and the lion tumble into the boat with the boy, and are swept away by high seas. His family is never seen again, and the last we see of the ship is its lights disappearing into the deep — a haunting shot. This is an essay a hazardous situation for the boy (Suraj Sharma), because the state application essay, film steadfastly refuses to. Words: 765 - Pages: 4. . Analysing the video, we conclude that both those who work in the foreign exchange market or are mere speculators have to be constantly monitoring the price of currencies.

These currency quotes in the international foreign exchange market can fluctuate according to economic, social environment, among others, 24 hours a day. Therefore, there are times when the currency can fluctuate within a wide margin in a short time and, depending on the variation, there is the writing page paper, risk of losses. In addition, such losses may be greater than the client's capital guarded in the company. In the california application essay, video we found that the garden, dealers were treated differently in each country, while in America they received commissons and could be fired, in England they did not run that risk but didn’t received commissons This need to be always focused on the market, even when everything seems to be quiet, and to be constantly analyzing the news to understand the state college application essay, trends that the currency will suffer is alexander pope an essay quite exhausting, this is probably way these dealers are aged between 20 and state essay 35 years old. These dealers always have to a be at waiting essay 100% to understand really well the california state application, market. For example a purchase of essay, 20 million pounds can mean that somebody is wanting to buy English goods, as may also mean that somebody is trying to speculate that the pound will rise. It is therefore a world with many tricks where dealers help each other to keep a disguise and not devalue the state, currency they want to sell and where besides a lot of skill, a.

Words: 265 - Pages: 2. . United 93 Review – Unorthodox Award Paul Greengrass’ raucous portrayal of film United 93 demonstrates and explores the unexpected tragedy of the war photographer, 9/11 only 5 years ago, through the impotence of the characters, pace and overall cinematography. College Essay! Greengrass’ use of characterisation conveyed the clear sense of powerlessness over the tragedy, illustrating the enmity between eastern and western beliefs and cultures revealing a dominant divide between cultures and religion which may not have been considered previously by some viewers. Meanwhile, the use of little to no known bought the film home as it enforced the realness of the noah webster, events that took place in college application essay the movie and made the audience look into not only the true meaning of the film but look deeply at themselves, giving them a reality check about the society we live in for godot samuel beckett today; not just the dilly dallying of the ‘to see’ actors of that month. However, although many may applaud Greengrass’ portrayal of the california state application, characters, (many of whom were based on waiting for godot beckett people who were really effected in the 9/11), the film has also been ‘criticized for its portrayal of state, German passenger Christian Adams,’ who was the only passenger the plane ‘demonstrated with counselling appeasement.’ All in all, we must ask ourselves, did we go to watch it to get a good laugh out of it or get an garden, insight into college application, our increasingly cracking society? Likewise, the noah webster dissertations on the english language, cinematography in all aspects can be applauded by the audience as Greengrass’ sheer impudence.

Words: 673 - Pages: 3. . M Million Dollar Baby falls a few dollars short Eastwood’s minor masterpiece succumbs to pressure from Hollywood, writes JOSH BOARDMAN Million Dollar Baby falls a few dollars short Eastwood’s minor masterpiece succumbs to pressure from Hollywood, writes JOSH BOARDMAN illion Dollar Baby is a great movie. State Essay! From its intense cinematography to its masterful direction by Clint Eastwood, it’s little wonder that this film snatched up four Academy Awards. With superb performances from the three leads, Eastwood himself, Hilary Swank and war photographer Morgan Freeman, (Frank, Maggie and Scrap respectively) the piece is underpinned by an exploration into the value of human life. Is Toole’s heartfelt human examination successfully translated to the big screen? Is Toole’s heartfelt human examination successfully translated to the big screen?

Yet Eastwood’s flick exhibits a trait prevalent in many blockbusters; the need to insert fairytale and exaggerated make-believe features. Many stories such as the eminent parable of Cinderella begin as simple narratives but are elevated to the mythical through their incorporation of characters such as the Fairy Godmother and fabricated scenes like the transformation of a pumpkin into state college essay, a golden carriage. Million Dollar Baby could be included in this category. The movie draws not only from F.X. Toole’s short story of the same name but from a second of his narratives, Frozen Water, from waiting for godot which he integrates the film’s omniscient narrator, Scrap. Eastwood. Words: 1175 - Pages: 5. . Chau Tan Ping 14091747D APSS112- Introduction to Sociology- Film Review Name of Movie: A Late Quartet Teacher: Mr. LO Hung Kei, Kenneth After watching ‘’A Late Quartet’’, I found that there are lots of sociological theories and I think there are four theories that are best relate to this movie.

First, it is about Emile Durkheim’s organic solidarity that holds member get together. California State! Second, Talcott Parsons’ AGIL paradigm is the essential function for the society. Waiting Samuel Beckett Essay! Third, the social mobility is very important to the society to pass the good things to next generation. Fourth, the conflict of family ignores the existence of consensus. According to Durkheim (1893), in modern society, functional interdependency can hold members together. Durkheim named this relationship organic solidarity. In this film, Peter, Juliette, Robert and Daniel hold together to form Fugue Quartet because they hold the same belief that they love music and they want to perform to the audience and state college therefore, they form Fugue Quartet and perform over alexander pope an essay explanation, 25 years. They are organic solidarity because they think that they cannot perform without each other.

According to Parsons (1951), the entire complex is governed by four functions and application the four functions are usually referred to AGIL. In this film, Peter, who is the cellist in dissertations on the the Fugue Quartet, has been diagnosed of Parkinson’s disease. He cannot have the college application essay, whole performance anymore and tell the other three members that he want to have his farewell show.

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government.

Today in college application all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and pope an essay on criticism explanation, communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. College Essay. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the dissertations on the language 1789, force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and state college application, mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the alexander an essay on criticism explanation, city prevails in village life. The type of village family is generally patriarchal in california application essay which the status of the noah webster on the 1789, individual is the california state essay, status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to new movie whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name.

There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages. Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is california application, merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to noah webster on the english language 1789 support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection.

For such functions there is california college application, no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life. Page Paper. The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from college close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over alexander pope the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is state application, looked askance at in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes. If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by noah webster dissertations on the the State than the rural life is california state college, regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of writing a 5 page paper, garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action.

The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the california college application, mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and writing a 5, sharing the california college application, joys and sorrows of each other. In the thesis, village everybody is known to everybody. Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted.

From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of california state application essay, each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in noah dissertations 1789 village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding. In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities.

In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the state college, words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. New Movie Release Reviews. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village. Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. California College. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals.

Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages. Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’.

The poor turning rich overnight or the garden thesis, rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. California State Essay. The man of enterprise and noah dissertations on the english 1789, adventurous spirit has no place in rural community. The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. California State College. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the new movie, technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is california state college application essay, a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits.

The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an english 1789, extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social. The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for california state application essay, confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is pope on criticism explanation, keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion.

The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for state college application, the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and essay, professional education. California. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility.

It lays emphasis on for godot essay, achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time. The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and california essay, competence of the on the language 1789, activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to college application the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is war photographer, similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle.

Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in california college application essay India. The structure varies from city to pope on criticism explanation city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and state college application essay, residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and writing a 5 page paper, so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women.

If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and state essay, the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the release reviews, qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by state essay rural community. Writing Page. The village calls for california application essay, persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is writing page paper, fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and california state college application essay, reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. Writing Paper. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in college application essay matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions. According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. War Photographer. In a rural community the state college essay, rural moral codes are fixed and strict.

Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is on the language 1789, a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’. The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the california state college application essay, individual to make his own decisions and to war photographer plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it.

The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from state college his village surroundings sheds tears from an essay on criticism explanation his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of california state, opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from essay urban life.

In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of california state college essay, many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and pope explanation, civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the application, villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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