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bud not buddy essay Small Planet Communications, Inc. Apostle Essay? + 15 Union Street, Lawrence, MA 01840 + (978) 794-2201 + Contact. In the Year of the Boar and. The Watsons Go to. by Christopher Paul Curtis. The Book Club Novel Guide outlines a complete theme-based unit with Book Club lesson plans focusing on Bud, Not Buddy. Book Club: A Literature-Based Curriculum discusses Bud, Not Buddy within a themed multi-book unit along with three other stories Gathering Blue by Lois Lowry, Monkey Island by Paula Fox, and projects at work Stargirl by Jerry Spinelli. Below you will find a synopsis, further reading materials, discussion topics, and reviews that you might find useful during your teaching of Bud, Not Buddy. Bud, whose mother died four years ago when he was six, has lived in the Home and in paul, foster homes since her death. As the thesis foreword novel opens, Bud learns that he will be moving to paul a new foster home, a family with a twelve-year-old son. Bud packs his suitcase, reviewing his most precious belongings from his mother: fliers advertising Herman E. Calloway and his various bands.

Instead of being excited about the foster home, Bud suspects that he will be tormented by the older boy—and he is right. When he defends himself, Bud is thesis foreword locked in the shed for apostle the night with the release reviews promise of being returned to the Home. After an attack by hornets, he breaks out of the shed and decides to run away. The remainder of the apostle paul novel chronicles his journey from Flint to release Grand Rapids, Michigan, in search of the man Bud believes is his father: Herman E. Paul? Calloway. He experiences life in a Hooverville, as well as his first kiss; he tries unsuccessfully to clear admit essay find his favorite librarian; and apostle he hitches a ride to Grand Rapids with Lefty Lewis (a character based on release, the author’s grandfather).

When he finally meets his supposed father, he is paul surprised by the man’s age and his gruff demeanor. After spending a few days in Grand Calloway Station, the truth is revealed that Herman Calloway is his grandfather. Bud’s mother had run away from Calloway’s home as a teenager. Throughout the novel, readers are introduced to important events of the Great Depression, including the forming of the Pullman porters union, the Hoovervilles near railways, the laws discriminating against African Americans, and the prejudice common in many places. Further Reading and Links. The following sites can be used to support and enrich the Book Club unit for Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis. Thesis Foreword? About the Author and the Novel. Nobody but Curtis This is the official website for the author of Bud, Not Buddy. Essay? It offers a biography, a list of his books, and other resources. Essay Places? Video Interview Watch an interview with Christopher Paul Curtis presented by Reading Rockets.

The site also offers a short biography and a bibliography of his children's book. Christopher Paul Curtis Random House Kids provides this page which includes biographical and career information as well as a message from Curtis that visitors can watch. The New York Times Review Read a review of Curtis's novel Bud, Not Buddy published in the newspaper in 1999. Common Sense This review of the apostle paul book gives it 4 out of 5 stars. You can read details and new movie release user reviews about the book. The Great Depression PBS provides this site with general information about The Great Depression including a timeline and a movie about riding the apostle paul essay rails.

Also check out Depression News: Michigan Historical Museum, this site provides links via newspaper style to information about at work, unions, strikes, the arts, and social programs. The Great Depression and Children Learn about the children of the Great Depression and what it meant to grow-up during those hard times. All About Jazz This site provides biographies and audio clips, as well as the history about jazz music. More information about the general music taste of the 1930's can be found on this site. Famous Criminals of the apostle essay 1930's The FBI website provides information about several infamous gangsters and criminal organizations of the 1930s such as Bonnie and essay smoking in public Clyde,John Dillinger,Baby Face Nelson, and of course Al Capone. Hoovervilles The History channel website explains what shantytowns (Hoovervilles) are and how they got the name. Modern American Poetry: About the apostle Great Depression This site includes links to historical information as well as to essay on ban smoking in public poets and art of the apostle paul time.

Big Theme Questions. Clear Admit Analysis? What is family? What are the special qualities that shape a family? What is home? What characteristics make a place feel like home? How do people cope with loss? What are some positive ways to cope with loss? Is it possible to find something that you didn’t know you had lost? If so, describe some examples from literature or real life. Apostle Paul? How does it feel to new movie release discover something that’s unexpected but very valuable?

How is essay life like a journey? Why are journeys important? Outline of essay in public places Lesson Plan | Discussion Topics | Writing Prompts. Apostle Essay? The following section can be used to get discussions started in your classroom. It is release reviews based on the Lesson Plan within the Book Club Novel Guide for Bud, Not Buddy. The Lesson Plan includes blackline masters for apostle paul essay the students that support the writing prompts. Cons Affirmative Action? The writing prompts provided are meant as suggestions only. As students become more comfortable with the Book Club format, they will certainly have ideas and questions that go beyond the prompts.

Consider giving students “free choice” as a log option. Book Club Reading Logs help students respond to literature and organize ideas as they participate in Book Club. Chapter 1 | Language Conventions: Introduction to essay Book Club. Notice the author’s unique style of smoking writing. Discuss some things that make the paul style unique. New Movie Reviews? What do you like about the apostle paul essay way the book starts? What don’t you like? Why? Bud says that his eyes don’t cry anymore. Why do you think his eyes don’t cry?

Why do you think Bud’s mom saved the flyers that Bud keeps in his suitcase? Chapter 2 | Literary Elements: Point of essay on ban in public View. How would the chapter change if it were told from Toddy’s point of view? From Mrs. Amos’s?

What does Mrs. Amos mean when she says, “I do not have time to apostle paul put up with the foolishness of those members of our race who do not want to be uplifted”? What do the allusions add to the book? Why do you think Bud has devised a set of rules to live by? Chapters 3–4 | Literary Elements: Imagery and Figurative Language. What are some of the most vivid, interesting, funny, or sad descriptions in the book so far? Why do these descriptions stand out to you?

Begin a Fabulous Phrases and Delightful Descriptions list. Continue to add descriptions to the list as you read Bud, Not Buddy. Why is the suitcase so important to Bud? If you were Bud, what items would you put in your suitcase? Why? Think about a time when you were in a scary place.

What do you remember about the place and the experience? Review the description of the shed in Chapter 3. What images stand out to you? Chapters 5–6 | Comprehension: Summarizing and Sequencing. Draw a flowchart of the important events that have happened in the book so far. Why did Bud’s mother name him Bud? What do you think this means about samurai's garden thesis, Bud and his future? In Chapter 5, Bud and his mother discuss doors opening and closing. How does this metaphor relate to Bud? How does Bud use his list of rules to essay help him through difficult situations?

Continue to on ban keep a list of Bud’s rules. Chapter 7 | Language Conventions: Fluency. Paul Essay? At the end of the chapter, Bud talks about samurai's garden, a door closing and one opening. What do you think he means? Continue summarizing and sequencing events.

Update your list of Fabulous Phrases and Delightful Descriptions. Apostle Paul Essay? Chapter 8 | Comprehension: Foreshadowing and Predicting. What has Bud learned about families? Why do you think Deza’s mom describes children who are alone as “dust in essay on ban, the wind”? Is Bud lost?

Why or why not? Do you think the song “Shenandoah” is related to Bud’s life? Explain. Chapters 9–10 | Literary Elements: Theme. Add to paul essay your list of motifs.

Which images appear more than once in this chapter? Have you seen these images before? Where? What are some possible themes of the thesis foreword book? How did you arrive at these themes? Review your chart of apostle paul essay predictions, adjusting previous predictions and listing new ones.

Are you surprised by thesis foreword, Bud's decision to walk to Grand Rapids? Do you think he will make it? How is Bud feeling as he walks alone in apostle paul, the dark? How would you feel if you were in his place? Would you make the journey? Make a prediction about the man Bud calls the vampire.

Is he a good man who is going to garden help Bud, or a person who could hurt Bud? Explain your reasoning. Paul Essay? Continue summarizing and sequencing. Chapter 11 | Comprehension: Character Analysis. Discuss the characters in the book so far. Use quotations and characters from samurai's garden thesis this story and others to paul essay fill in a chart with examples of essay on ban in public places direct and indirect characterization and round and flat characters. Write a character analysis of essay Bud. Make sure you describe not only his character but also how he has changed, the important events and symbols in his life, and admit analysis the things you would expect him to essay do. If you think Bud shares any similarities with other characters in the story, include this in release, your analysis. Also, explain briefly how Curtis develops Bud’s character. Update your prediction chart, adjusting previous predictions and making new ones.

Chapter 12 | Literary Elements: Setting. Describe the setting of the story, including the paul essay physical, geographical, social, and political elements. Pros Cons Affirmative Action? Explain how the setting helps make the story believable. Paul Essay? Discuss the challenges Bud faces in organizing projects, the story. How does the setting add to these challenges? Review your list of motifs from Lesson 6. Identify motifs that are still recurring and add new recurring images to the list. Continue working on your prediction and allusions charts. Chapters 13–14 | Language Conventions: Reading Log Entries.

Do you think that Herman Calloway is really Bud’s father? List reasons that he might be and reasons that he might not be. What does “this is your little red wagon, you pull it if you want” mean? Why do you think Bud began to cry? There are many references to seeds being planted or sprouted in the book. What do you think is the significance of essay these references? Chapters 15–16 | Comprehension: Questioning and at work Clarifying. While reading, stop periodically to jot down questions about the apostle essay text. When you encounter the answer to the question, stop and record it. When you have finished reading, review any unanswered questions to see if the projects at work text has answered them yet. Identify a confusing element from this reading assignment or a previous one.

Explain how you clarified the confusion. Continue summarizing and sequencing. What are some of the apostle paul most interesting details of the room in which Bud sleeps? How does he feel when he is in the room? Why does Bud like his new nickname so much? How does it make him feel? Why do you think the band members welcome Bud so warmly? Why might they be drawn to Bud? Chapters 17–18 | Composition: Compare and Contrast. In a full-length essay, compare and contrast an organizing, element from Bud, Not Buddy with one from apostle Because of Winn-Dixie or another novel.

How does Bud feel when he hears the clear admit band play? What words and phrases does he use to describe the music? Talk about apostle paul, setting. Why was life difficult for African-American musicians at the time this story takes place? Were you surprised by events at cons research paper the end of Chapter 18? Why, or why not? Chapter 19 | Response to Literature: Analyze the Story’s Ending.

What did Bud mean when he said that he was carrying his momma inside him? What do you think of Herman Calloway’s reaction to the news of his daughter’s death? What do you learn about Bud’s character from his actions and paul essay reactions in this final chapter? Does the ending of the thesis foreword story seem believable? Why or why not? Afterword | Composition: Big Theme Questions. Answer one of the big theme questions in an essay. Be sure to support your ideas with examples from the text. Why do you think Christopher Paul Curtis included an Afterword? Do you think the information in the Afterword adds to your understanding of the characters and events in the novel? Why, or why not?

According to Curtis, why is it important to talk to older relatives and friends and keep their stories alive? Do you agree with Curtis?

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Pop Music Through The Decades Essay Sample. The 1950’s where so called the birth of popular music. Essay. The first half of the cons affirmative research paper, decade was run by popular music, or classic pop. This more vocal driven music had replaced the paul, earlier big band style. Artists such as Nat King Cole and Frank Sinatra where the samurai's thesis, leaders of this age of traditional pop. Often the paul essay, most popular musicians that play this genre also played very well on the television and sometimes they would be featured on music special shows, or perhaps even have a music variety of their own. They sang a lot of their own original songs but a lot of the hits where songs previously written and covered, meaning the public already knew them. Most songs in this genre where just described as been very simple and melodic, some even ballad like.

The whole genre was influenced by previously done jazz, swing and big band. As well as this, there was the on ban, development of other genres. The 1950’s saw the rise of Rock ‘n’ Roll, artists like Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley dominated the scene as well as Carl Perkins. Perkins was seen as a pinoeer in the creation of apostle paul, rock and roll, he describes his music often as “Rockability” because it sounds like a combination of country and RB with rock influences. Perkins wrote the chart topping Blue Suede Shoes in 1955 which was then covered by the “King of pros cons paper, Rock ‘n’ Roll” who enjoyed even more of its success. Elvis Presley was then a huge part of the popular music scene in apostle essay, the 50’s, he was a cotoversial performer, with his famous hip gyrations appearing on the Milton Berle show in on ban smoking, 1956, a performance that shock the conservative adults, but at the time drew in the youth. Its important not to paul, forget the african-americans who created the genre but could never fund recordings, Little Richard, Chuck Beryy and affirmative action, Chubby Check, to name a few. Jonny Cash and Hank WIlliams defined the Country and Western style of music during this Decade. Cash’s music had a very country sound with some rockability influences, his music often revolved around as certain theme, life, sorrow, relationships, this made his music very relatable for apostle many of his listeners.

Because of his respect and compassion for new movie reviews his fellow human, this resulted in paul essay, Cash playing in prison across america, His most famous. performance been in Folsom Prison. Rhythm and essay on ban in public, Blues emerged from jazz in the 40’s and was the term used for music that was slightly more upbeat and contained jazz, doo-wop, blues and gospel to apostle paul essay, create a unique sound during the decade. Many artists, after enjoying time on the Rock and Roll chart where somewhat pushed into the RB genre as the music industy was making way for the big shot white rock and rollers. Some of the most notable RB artists of the decade include Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers and Sam Cooke. 1960’s. The first of the 60’s was still dominated by projects the later half of the 50’s, until 1963 artist such as Elvis and Ray Charles where still topping the charts. Post 63, a number of social influences would shape popular music, and give us the diversity we see today.

The British invasion was perhaps the most key area of the 60’s, This is the time in the early/mid 60’s in paul essay, which many Britsish rock bands and pop artists found mainstream sucess in clear admit essay analysis, the US and worldwide. Apostle Paul Essay. These bands where influenced by the US rock and roll scene, then went on to create there own unique and samurai's, vary styles. The band that mainly comes to mind here is The Beatles, the band that changed and shaped pop music, broke the Us music scene in paul essay, 63 but then really hit it big in 64 when they appeared on the Ed Sullivan l The Beatles then continued to dominate world charts until they broke up in 1970. Essay Smoking In Public Places. The scene surrounding The Beatles was known as Beatlemania, which caused many up and coming band to try and create the “liverpool sound”. Essay. Other Bands linked to the British invasion would be The Who, The Rolling Stones, and cons action paper, The Animals, some of these reached comparable success of The Beatles and paul, influenced music in a very different way. The Motown and RB where very significant in this decade in terms of the Civil Rights movement and intergration in at work, the American society. Motown begun as a Detroit based record label but quickly grew as it signed African-American groups singers and songwriters breaking the barriers of segregation. Two of the most influential groups where Miracles and Diana Ross and apostle, the Supremes, both of which had as much chart success as any of the rock groups.

Motown also paved the way for other popular artists, such as Stevie Wonder and Marvin Gaye. Whilst rock was big in clear admit essay analysis, the 50’s, it really came into its own in the 60’s, creating many subgenres which would keep developing rock in apostle paul essay, itself. Surf Rock was a southern Californian type of dance music that was mostly instrumental until the arrival of the at work, British invasion, and the genre grew to apostle paul essay, lyrics about girl and cars. Clear Analysis. The band that defined this genre was The Beach Boys, whose vocal harmonies and well-crafted composition came to apostle paul, define the genre of surf rock. Psychedelic rock was also very popular, more so in the later half of the essay on ban smoking, 60’s in which it reached its peak. Psychedelic rock was assosicated with hippie culture and hallucinogenic drug use, it was created with the intention of enhancing the experience of apostle paul essay, listener who where using LSD or other mind-altering substances. There was much experimentation in the sound and much of it was influenced by Eastern and Indian music. Many popular rock bands experimented with this genre, including The Beatles, The Doors, The Jimi Hendrix Experience.

Hard rock took the elements of rock ‘n’ roll and projects at work, made them heavier as the genre formed in the middle of the decade. The sound is apostle paul, characterized by new movie release reviews more aggressive tones and apostle paul essay, delivery. Hard rock vocalists are identified by their higher range and distinct and often raspy voices. Thesis Foreword. The music was influenced heavily by blues rock, garage rock, and rhythm and blues. This style became associated with rebellious youth and apostle, an anti-authority demeanor, with a few acts even destroying their own instruments on stage (like The Who). The 1970s created a perfect musical bridge from the rebelliousness of the 1960s and the happy songs that are characteristic of the 1980s. Following the release reviews, counterculture of the 60s, the 70screated a trend of relaxing music as well as dance music. Apostle Essay. If ever a musical style defined a decade, Disco was the cons paper, definition of the 1970s. Although its popularity was relatively short-lived, the genre hosted a great deal of songs and artists that people are still dancing to today and apostle, had a large influence on the fashions of the decade, too.This style of music became so popular that well respected artists like Rod Stewart and Diana Ross jumped on the bandwagon by thesis foreword adding Disco elements to their new music or creating their own disco albums. Essay. Unfortunately, it did not take long for the public to see disco’s silliness and commercialization – something that they had just rebelled against a few years earlier.

Youths rebelled against the genre as well and it was not uncommon to pros research paper, see a few music fans sporting “Disco Sucks” T-shirts. Progressive rock was another popular genre during the 1970s. This type of music was typically characterized by apostle paul essay rock music combined with another genre, such as classical or opera, to create a hybrid genre. Pros Research Paper. Songs from this genre were often longer and bands tended to be more spontaneous and experimental while they were playing live. Apostle Essay. Many progressive rock albums were also concept albums, meaning that they followed a theme throughout the entire album or series of albums. The band Pink Floyd were known for their concept albums and were considered some of the admit essay analysis, best in the genre. The punk rock genre also emerged in the 1970s.

This was a style that continued on the legacy of the 60’s but with a more upbeat and harder style. Heavy guitar riffs and more decibels helped to motivate those who were still upset about the status quo in the country. Paul. The Ramones are often referred to garden thesis, as the original punk band. This band consisted of a group of family members that based their image on The Beatles but their music was much harder.The Sex Pistols also enjoyed a short-lived success as a punk rock band of the 1970s. Band members heavily used drugs and alcohol which eventually led to their dissolution shortly after forming, but not before releasing two hit albums, “God Save the Queen” and “Never Mind the Bullocks”, that created a wave of rebellion throughout the apostle, United States and the UK. Funk music came out of the RB, Jazz and Soul music of the clear essay, late 1960s after artists added more beats and essay, psychedelic tones to their songs. Pros Cons Affirmative Action Research Paper. This genre saw the height of apostle paul, its popularity encompass the 1970s with artists like James Brown, Parliament-Funkadelic, Sly and the Family Stone and samurai's garden, Kool and the Gang dominating the music charts.

Funk was known for its danceable beats, strange costumes, outrageous personalities and often socially conscious lyrics. James Brown, “the hardest working man in essay, show business”, is often thought of as the creator of funk music and his 1967 album Cold Sweat is thought to thesis foreword, feature some of the apostle, first main stream funk songs. The 1980s saw the thesis foreword, emergence of pop, dance music and new wave As the term disco fell out of fashion in the decade’s early years, genres such as post- disco, Italo disco and euro disco. The 1980s saw the essay, reinvention of Michael Jackson, and the discovering Whitney Houston and madonna and who were all arguably the most powerful musicians during the time. Their videos became a permanent fixture on MTV and gained a worldwide mass audience. Michael Jackson’s Thriller album from 1982 is the best selling album of all time it is cited as selling as many as 110 million copies worldwide.

Being the biggest selling artist of that decade he was indisputably the thesis foreword, biggest star of the 1980s. Beginning in 1983 and peaking in success in 1986-1991, the decade saw the resurgence of hard rock music and the emergence of its glam metal subgenre. Bands such as Queen Def Lepard, Bon Jovi, and Cinderella were among the most popular acts of the decade. The 1980s saw the apostle paul, emergence of wildly popular hard rock band Guns ‘n’ Roses and the successful comebacks of Aerosmith and Alice Cooper in the late 1980s. The success of hard rock act Van Halen spanned throughout the entire decade, first with singer David Lee Roth and later with Sammy Hager. Queen, which had expanded its music to thesis foreword, experimental and crossover genres in paul essay, the early 1980s, returned to guitar-driven hard rock with The Miricle in 1989. By 1984, a majority of groups signed to independent record lables were mining from a variety of rock and thesis foreword, particularly 1960s rock influences. This represented a sharp break from the futuristic, hyper rational post-punk years.

Throughout the 1980s, alternative rock was mainly an underground phenomena. While on occasion a song would become a commercial hit or albums would receive critical praise in mainstream publications like Rolling Stone alternative rock in the 1980s was primarily relegated to apostle paul, Independent record lables, fanzies and college radio stations. Alternative bands built underground followings by touring constantly and regularly releasing low-budget albums. In the case of the United States, new bands would form in the wake of previous bands, which created an extensive underground circuit in America, filled with different scenes in various parts of the country. Although American alternative artists of the 1980s never generated spectacular album sales, they exerted a considerable influence on action paper, later alternative musicians and laid the apostle essay, groundwork for their success. Encompassing graffiti art, break dancing, rap music, and fashion, hip-hop became the dominant cultural movement of the African American communities in the 1980s. The Hip hop musical genre had a strong influence on pop music in the late 1980s which still continues to the present day. During the 1980s, the hip hop genre started embracing the creation of rhythm by using the human body, via the vocal percussion technique of beatboxing Pioneers such as Doug E Fresh, and Buffy from the Fat Boys made beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using their mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and other body parts. “Human Beatbox” artists would also sing or imitate turntables scratching or other instrument sounds. Popular Music in the 1990s saw the continuation of teen pop and dance pop trends which had emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. Additionally, hip-hop grew and continued to be highly successful in the decad. Clear Admit Essay. Aside from rap RB and paul, urban music in general remained extremely popular throughout the decade; urban music in the late-1980s and 1990s often blended with styles such as soul funk and jazz resulting in pros action paper, fusion genres such as new jack swing and paul essay, neo soul, and hip-hop soul, which were popular.

With the breakthrough of projects, bands such as Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became commercially successful during the 1990s. By the start of the 1990s, the apostle paul, music industry was enticed by samurai's garden thesis alternative rock’s commercial possibilities and major labels actively courted bands including Dinosaur Jr, and Nirvana In the early 1990s, bands like Rage Against The Machine, 311 and Cypress Hill brought a fresh sound by apostle paul essay combining rap and rock with much success. These bands laid down the blueprints of analysis, nu metal. In the apostle, middle of the decade this style, which contained a mix of grunge, metal, and hip hop, became known as nu Metal.Korn and Limp Bizkit are nu metal pioneers who have sold over 40 and 30 million albums respectively. Some bands, such as Slipknot, employed a more shocking sound and thesis foreword, image. The increasing popularity of nu metal spawned a wave of successful bands like Linkin Park in the following decade. Urban Pop became and stayed popular throughout the 1990s, but was overshadowed by more pop-rock and dance music by apostle essay the second half of the decade. Michael Jackson achieved continued critical and commercial success in the 90s with his 1991 album Dangerous which sold 35 million copies and on ban smoking in public, his 1995 follow-up HIStory which sold 40 millions units (20 million copies of the double disc set). Jackson’s debut single from the former album Black or white was one of the best selling singles of the 1990s and the debut single from the latter album you are not alone became, on September 2, 1995, the first single to debut at paul, number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. British girl group The Spice Girls managed to break the American market, becoming the most commercially successful British Group in North America since The Beatles. Smoking In Public. With the explosive growth of apostle essay, computers, music technology and consequent reduction in the cost of equipment in the early 1990s, it became possible for a wider number of musicians to clear essay analysis, produce electronic music.

Even though initially most of the electronic music was dance music, the genre developed in the 1990s as musicians started producing music which was not necessarily designed for the dance-floor but rather for home listening and slower paced music which was played throughout chillout rooms—the relaxation sections of the apostle essay, clubs. The 2000s were for cons affirmative action paper the most part, nondescript, with the earlier part of the essay, decade retaining characteristics that dominated the 1990s, and styles from previous decades being revived later in the period. Unlike many past decades, the 2000s did not see the creation or emergence of many styles, with the essay analysis, exception of a few indie-related genres such as Emo and electronic subgenres like UK Funky. Convergence of paul essay, different styles was one of the more defining features of the new movie release reviews, decade, as seen with the apostle, creation and commercial success of the British Grime genre. Organizing Projects At Work. The popularity of teenage pop carried over from the 1990s with acts such as Britney Spears and Christena Agulea dominating the paul essay, charts in the earlier years of the decade. RB which was very successful in the early years of the 2000s, saw a steep decline in popularity throughout the decade. This was in part due to the rise of hip hop and subgenres such as crunk and snap music, even though a fusion of these styles with RB in crunkB and pros cons affirmative action, snapB saw success in the mid-to-late 2000s. During the early 2000s, a new wave of metal began with interest in the newly emerging genre nu metal and genres of essay, a similar style such as rap metal and the later mainstream success rap rock. The popularity of nu metal music carried over from the late 1990s, where it was introduced by early work from bands such as Korn, Deftones, Limp Bizkit, Slipknot and pros cons affirmative action paper, Coal Chamber, into the early 2000s with the similar genre, rap rock, bringing in a wave of monster-hit artists such as System of apostle paul, a Down, Evanescence, Staind, Papa Roach, and Disturbed.

Pop music continued and due to TV shows such as Xfactor and Britain’s got talent. It seemed the music industry was assesable for almost everyone, this is clear from the example of One Direction, 5 average singers put together on Xfactor that are taking over the charts with their love orientated songs written for them. My Opinion. I have decided to conclude this journey through the history of garden, pop by adding in my own opinion. Personally I think music is constantly evolving, and will continue to do so, in so ways this isn’t so good because the music industry is becoming flooded, and a dream of paul, been famous and a household name is becoming harder to reach. Also this is good as it allows new and different genres to emerge.

Is this the samurai's, perfect essay for paul you? Save time and order Pop Music Through The Decades. essay editing for only $13.9 per cons affirmative action research paper page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Pop Music Through The Decades. Popular Music is Any music since industrialization in the mid-1800s that is in paul essay, line with the tastes and preferences of the middle class. What theme does pop music typically use… Rock and Roll- A Great Movement in Music. The type of music that later became known as “rock and roll” evolved in the mid 1950’s.

It was a combination of jazz, rhythm and blues, country, and gospel sounds…. Punk Music Concert Review. Peeking into the Punk Scene Punk music is a unique form of music that incorporates heavy, raw and distorted guitars; intricate, deep sounding bass lines; high paced, pounding drumbeats; and… Illegal music downloading is stealing. ‘’Illegally downloading music is stealing’’ A common source of controversy nowadays is illegal music downloads and music file sharing. Thesis Foreword. Some people say that there is nothing wrong with it, but… Music: Why it is the most important thing in my life. Music is the most important thing in essay, my life.The reason this is, I think, is because my family was built around two main things: Music and Religion. Although I value… The Emergence of Pop Punk Music.

The displacement of an original genre of music is pros affirmative paper, thought to essay, be what creates a subgenre of music. This displacement may have been brought on by cultural, economical, or political…

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An Introduction to the Ancient Festival of Nowruz. Some people say that it’s the 5,774 th time that Iranians across the world are celebrating the ancient Persian New Year festival, Nowruz. However, some history experts believe that Nowruz has been enshrined and observed for more than 15,000 years, well before the official establishment of the Persian Empire. Like Christmas, Nowruz is an elaborate festival that brings millions of people together, but there are certain elements in Nowruz that make it a distinctive tradition, and apostle paul essay, one of these important elements is its historicity. Organizing. Cyrus the Great, the first king of the Persian Empire, came to throne in paul essay 550 BC, but for almost 2000 years before him, when In-Su-Kush-Siranna was the new movie release ruler of the Kingdom of Aratta, Nowruz had been celebrated in Greater Iran, which consisted of several provinces that currently constitute modern countries like Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Pakistan, Iraq, and parts of India and Turkey. Nowruz is considered the most important national holiday in Iran as it marks the beginning of a new solar year and the arrival of essay spring. According to the Persian calendar, Nowruz begins on the vernal equinox, which starts on March 20 or 21. The beauty and wonderfulness of Nowruz is samurai's garden thesis, that it starts on a unique moment each time and people excitedly and breathlessly wait for the announcement of what is known as the moment of the transition of the year. Paul. This moment is astronomically calculated according to the Jalali solar calendarand officially inaugurates the New Year. Unquestionably, Nowruz is one of the prominent hallmarks of the Persian culture and Iranian civilization. It represents the on ban smoking places glory and magnificence of ancient Iran and apostle paul essay, manifests a sense of national pride and dignity for Iranians around the projects at work world.

In his long epic poem, Shahnameh, the 10 th century Iranian poet and philosopher Ferdowsi talks in detail about the essay origins and roots of Nowruz. Samurai's Thesis. He says that when the legendary, prehistoric Iranian king Jamshid Jam conquered the world and ascended the throne, he declared that day as Nowruz and the beginning of paul essay Iranian New Year. On that day, Iranians from across the country would come to organizing at work visit Persepolis (the ancient capital of the Persian Empire) to hold festivals, receive rewards and gifts from the king, enjoy eating festive meals of paul essay dried nuts, fruits, and sweetmeat, sing happy songs, and perform plays. Nowruz is important in that it comes as winter ends, and that is why Iranians believe Nowruz is organizing projects, a feast of rebirth and apostle, rejuvenation that injects fresh and warm blood into the veins of the frosty and frozen nature. Iran, which is famous for its climatic diversity and unique nature, is very beautiful in the spring, and especially during the 13 days of Nowruz festivals. Thesis. Fragrant flowers and attractive plants grow in large quantities in northern, central, and apostle essay, southern parts of Iran, and the weather is predominantly mild and moderate in the majority of the cities all around the country. Nowruz is celebrated from the Farvardin 1 to 13 (Farvardin is the first month of the solar calendar whose name is taken from the Zoroastrian word “Faravashis” meaning “the spirits of the dead.” Iranians believe that the spirits of their deceased beloved ones will return to the material world in the last 10 days of the year.) One of the common traditions of Nowruz that the Iranians are strongly committed to is paying visit to the elderly and meeting the other members of the family. In such meetings, Iranian families entertain each other with delicious Iranian cuisines, spring fruits, dried nuts, candies, confections, deserts, rice-cakes, pastries, and cookies.

Setting the “Haft-Seen” table is also one of the customs of Nowruz that is seen as a quintessential part of the New Year celebrations. Haft means “seven” in cons affirmative paper Persian, and “seen” stands for the sign of the 15 th letter of Persian alphabet which sounds “s”. The Haft-Seen table is apostle essay, named so because there are seven items on this table whose name start with the Persian letter “seen”. Each of these seven items signifies a certain meaning. These items include “Senjed”, or silver berry, the sweet, dry fruit of the lotus tree, which denotes love and affection; “Sumaq”, or sumac, the crushed spices of berries, which symbolizes sunrise and the warmth of life; “Seeb”, or red apple, which stands for smoking health and essay, beauty; “Seer”, or garlic, which indicates good health and wellbeing; “Samanu”, a sweet paste made of wheat and sugar that represents fertility and the sweetness of life; “Sabzeh”, or sprouted wheat grass, which is organizing at work, a sign of renewal of life; and “Sonbol”, or the apostle purple hyacinth flower, which represents prosperity and goodwill in the New Year. However, the majority of Iranian families put more than 7 items on their “Haft-Seen” table settings. The additional things are “Sekkeh”, coins that herald wealth and new movie release, affluence; “Serkeh”, vinegar that symbolizes age, patience, and the toleration of hardships; and “Sangak”, a plain whole wheat sour dough flatbread that characterizes blessing and good luck. Iranians also put colored eggs and a bowl of goldfish on their traditional Haft-Seen table and consider these two elements as signs of essay fertility, welfare, and new movie, happiness.

One of the other elements placed on the beautiful Haft-Seen table is a mirror, a symbol of purity, reflection, and honesty. Iranians never forget to put a beautifully adorned and decorated mirror on apostle essay their traditional table setting. They also put a copy of the samurai's thesis Holy Quran on their Haft-Seen table, which they believe will guard their life in apostle essay the coming year. In an elaborate and well-researched article about Nowruz published on the Iran Review website, the cultural researcher Firouzeh Mirrazavi writes, “The festival, according to some documents, was observed until the fifth of Farvardin, and then the special celebrations followed until the pros affirmative research end of the month. Possibly, in the first five days, the festivities were of a public and national nature, while during the rest of the month it assumed a private and royal character.” Since Nowruz was historically celebrated in Iran’s ceremonial capital Persepolis [Takht-e-Jamshid] in the southern city of Shiraz, every year thousands of Iranians travel to Shiraz to take part in the national celebrations of Nowruz.

Even the foreign tourists who travel to Iran to take part in essay the celebrations prefer to visit Shiraz or Isfahan during the 13 days of Nowruz. But why is Nowruz extended for 13 days? According to the ancient belief of the Iranians, 13 is an inauspicious number. Samurai's Garden Thesis. On the 13 th day of Farvardin, Iranian families gather in parks, gardens, farms, and essay, other green places to eat cuisines containing certain local herbs and have friendly conversations. They also throw sprouted wheat grasses into rivers believing that by leaving the “Sabzeh” in the waterways, they throw away the misfortune associated with the number 13 and the 13 th day of the year, and this way, they guarantee their New Year and prevent hardships and calamities from coming into their life. They think that the Sabzeh that is pitched into the rivers will take the reviews bad luck with itself to an unknown destination. In Nowruz, the adults in the family pay the younger members certain amounts of cash as a gift for the New Year. This reward is called “Eidi” and is not usually spent during the whole year but saved and kept as a token of blessing and apostle essay, wellbeing. With all of its beauties and garden, splendor, Nowruz is now considered a global festival as it was officially recognized and registered on the UNESCO List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in February 2010. The same year, the UN General Assembly recognized March 21 as the apostle paul International Day of Nowruz, describing it as a spring festival of Persian origin which has been celebrated for thousands of years.

Nowruz is a relic of past days, a remnant from the dawn of human civilization. It removes religious, cultural, lingual, and thesis, national boundaries and connects the hearts of millions of people who want to take part in a unique ceremony marking not only the beginning of New Year, but the end of the distressed winter and arrival of the delightful spring. It’s not simply a source of honor for Iranians who observe and apostle, celebrate it, but an opportunity for the congregation and solidarity of all the peace-loving and peace-making nations around the world. Kourosh Ziabari is an on ban smoking, award-winning Iranian journalist and reporter. He has won three prizes in Iran's National Press Festival. In August 2015, he was named the recipient of the Senior Journalists Seminar Fellowship by the Hawaii-based East-West Center. In June 2015, he was selected by paul essay, Deutsche Welle and European Youth Press to organizing at work be part of a team of apostle paul essay 16 young reporters and journos from different countries covering the Global Media Forum 2015 in Bonn, Germany.

Kourosh is also the recipient of the Gabriel Garcia Marquez Fellowship in Cultural Journalism 2015 by the FNPI Foundation in Colombia. Kourosh is a staff writer and reporter at Iran Review. He is the Iran correspondent of thesis foreword Fair Observer, an international media corporation based in California. He writes for The Huffington Post, Your Middle East, Middle East Eye and International Policy Digest. Follow him on Twitter at @KZiabari. Apostle Essay. Comments are encouraged, but please respect the rules.

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code chivalry essay The Mafia is oppression, arrogance, greed, self-enrichment, power and hegemony above and against all others. It is apostle essay not an new movie abstract concept, or a state of mind, or a literary term. It is a criminal organization regulated by unwritten but iron and inexorable rules. The myth of a courageous and generous 'man of apostle honor' must be destroyed, because a mafioso is just the opposite. -- Cesare Terranova, Italian Magistrate murdered in 1979. It exists. It is a symptom of Sicily's endemic political corruption and a general cynicism regarding public institutions and the criminal justice system, its life sustained by a widespread mentality which breeds a general distrust in even the youngest Sicilians - distrust of projects at work everybody and every thing. Paul Essay? The people who claim or imply that the international Mafia does not exist or is not very powerful (and that unfortunately has included one or two Italian-American ethnic organisations despite news of the Mafia in American publications such as Time and garden Newsweek ) are either in denial, intentionally deceptive, self-serving or plain ignorant. Four pervasive myths about the essay Sicilian Mafia - as opposed to the American, Calabrian, Apulian or Neapolitan forms of organized crime - should be dispelled. • The Mafia has a centralized organizational structure with a single man at the top, like a Pope.

This has never been true, although one infamous mafioso was indeed nicknamed The Pope. Vizzini, Genco Russo, Greco, Riina, Provenzano, Lo Piccolo and samurai's garden thesis (now) Messina Denaro never controlled the entire Sicilian Mafia, which has been compared to a hydra or octopus. At best, they briefly, informally oversaw the cupola or commission that administers it loosely and collectively, but which would never risk regular meetings. There is not, and never has been, a true capo dei capi (head of heads) of the Mafia or the Camorra (the Neapolitan brand of organized crime) in the manner of a Pope, CEO or general at the head of a rigidly structured organization. It is for this reason that decapitation is impossible. Italian investigators and apostle paul prosecutors know this, yet they also know that less-important mafia bosses tacitly defer to more powerful ones, especially in thesis foreword, certain matters involving foreign (international) business or, for example, the murder of a high-profile figure like a judge or senator. Apostle Paul? Within each cosca or cell, of essay on ban in public places course, there are ranks. • The Mafia is apostle hereditary, based on families. Times change, but until the 1950s the Sicilian Mafia was not based on families but simply on geographical zones of influence (Palermo, Catania, Corleone).

Calogero Vizzini, Michele Greco, Salvatore Totò Riina and cons action research Tommaso Buscetta were not the sons or near relatives of paul essay mafiosi. Projects? However, the Italianate forms of Mafia that flourish outside Sicily eventually developed a hereditary system of leadership. That includes mainland Italy and the Americas. In the United States, there historically was a blurry cultural distinction between the true Mafia of Lucky Luciano and the gangsterism of Al Capone. The cosche (literally but inaccurately clans) are not actual families but local territorial cells which include many people, of various ranks, who are unrelated to each other.

That said, nowadays it isn't too unusual for a young mafioso to wed the sister or cousin of a fellow mafioso, or for apostle paul essay, the leader of new movie a cosca to apostle paul, favor his own son with a certain benefit, such as extorting the pizzo in a specific neighborhood. There have also been cases of the thesis foreword wives of incarcerated mafiosi managing their husbands' affairs, including murder and extortion, especially in Catania. • The Mafia was supported by paul essay the nobility and the Catholic Church. By the twentieth century mafiosi were extorting money from aristocrats and by the end of the same century they were killing priests. One might make a case that certain landholding aristocrats and clear admit essay higher clergy, including a few bishops, condoned the actions of the Mafia when it was expedient, but sweeping generalizations are unjustified. For example, the apostle land reforms of 1948 dividing the new movie release reviews large rural estates were opposed by paul essay the nobles who owned these properties, and certain mafiosi worked for these landholders as land managers. Until the clear essay twentieth century the Church in Italy rarely took a strong position on apostle paul, any progressive social issue, so (for example) divorce was legalized in clear admit analysis, the country only in essay, 1974. If anything, we could say that the Mafia was sometimes facilitated by corrupt politicians who, like most Italians, were Catholic. It is new movie release reviews true, however, that the Mafia flourished for essay, a long time because the Church and the ruling class failed to recognize it as a threat to garden thesis, the very fabric of apostle essay society.

• The Mafia traces its roots to organizing, the Middle Ages. This is perhaps the most ridiculous myth of all. Paul? While the closed, secretive mentality that fostered the development of secret criminal societies such as the garden thesis Beati Paoli became commonplace with the essay Inquisition and Spanish rule during the sixteenth century, and though banditry in the countryside increased over time, the Mafia as organized crime (not just a Sicilian word having other meanings) did not exist until late in the eighteenth century at the very earliest. Only fantasists believe that it originated during the War of the Vespers, a revolt organized by the nobility, in 1282. Phenomena such as widespread charlatanry and professional incompetence, nepotism and essay analysis the overuse of job preferments have helped it along by essay discouraging transparency at every level of the economy. Until the fifteenth century the feudal life of Sicily was little different from smoking places that of any other part of western Europe. The history of the Mafia is not as elusive as pundits, novelists and screenwriters would have you believe. Protection rackets (the pizzo) and the narcotics trade still exist, of course, with the apostle essay Mafia funnelling its ill-won profits into businesses such as supermarket and hotel chains across Sicily and even in northern Italy. But a phenomenon which has worsened in essay analysis, recent years is the widespread theft of European Commission funding destined, in principle, for Sicilian economic development. Bribes, kickbacks and outright theft by politicians closely allied with (or actually members of) the Mafia has been a fact of life in Sicily for essay, a long time. The Mafia owns shopping centers, apartment blocks and thesis foreword construction firms that receive public contracts.

It extorts hundreds of apostle paul millions of euros each year to samurai's, buy ever more such businesses. In addition to politicians, many lawyers, doctors and architects are directly involved with the Mafia. Apostle Paul Essay? It is a cancer that hides for a while but just won't die. Considering its profound influence on Sicilian life, no history of clear admit essay analysis twentieth-century Sicily can be complete or accurate without mentioning the most famous Sicilian fraternity. Tragically, the Mafia (and extreme political corruption generally) is the single socio-economic factor that distinguishes Sicily's economic base from those of other European Mediterranean regions such as Spain and Portugal - though it appears that Greece also has some serious problems with public spending and corruption. It is one of the apostle paul world's most enduring criminal organizations, and one of the most serious social problems confronting Sicily today. In recent times, it has murdered judges, priests and children - though with its increasing grip on the legal economy (public contracts, stores, restaurants) - this rarely happens nowadays. Projects? Its hierarchy and vernacular are a reflection of Sicilian society itself, complete with religious allusions: Its ruling council is the Cupola, Michele Greco, was nicknamed The Pope, a leader of clans.

But, like the nobility, the Mafia is all but invisible. You probably won't see it if you visit Sicily. You probably won't see many of paul its effects, either, unless you look very closely. Thesis? Those who presume that today's Sicilians do not think about the Mafia are sorely mistaken. Paul Essay? Anti-Mafia organisations such as Addio Pizzo (of which Best of Sicily is a member) have done much to samurai's, encourage merchants and other business owners to stand up against the Mafia, but there is still much work to be done. Banditry and murder had been fairly commonplace since the Middle Ages, but the Mafia has existed as a loose network of local criminals only since the latter decades of the eighteenth century or the early years of the nineteenth. Like the nobility, its roots are feudal. Indeed, the early history of the Mafia is well known. Many people incorrectly presume the apostle essay Mafia to be the cause of certain social problems. Organizing At Work? In fact, it is the effect - the result of centuries of bizarre practices such as raccomandazioni (job preferments) which colour every facet of life in apostle paul essay, Sicily, making it a fertile breeding ground for all forms of corruption, dishonesty and criminality.

Nepotism (even in university positions) doesn't help matters, either. Pros Affirmative Research Paper? In such a climate, organised crime represents just one small step beyond the unfortunate conditions that already exist. Apostle Paul? In Sicily politicians literally buy votes with promises of essay on ban smoking in public places employment or other gifts. The popular perception of mafiosi as Robin Hoods or even knights is misleading, but it is based on general distrust of authority and - until very recently - the paul essay historical laxity of law enforcement in protecting citizens. This situation has improved somewhat in recent years but still persists among the popolino, Sicily's large underclass. From being friends of the friends, the more important mafiosi became known as men of honor.

In truth, the Mafia code is the antithesis of the code of chivalry - or at cons affirmative action best a bizarre interpretation of it. Sicilians' clannish nature (marriages arranged by parents were known into the twentieth century) created a favorable climate for the mafiosi. Omertà literally means manhood, and refers to the idea of a man resolving his own problems, but the term has become synonomous with the Mafia's code of silence. Apostle Paul Essay? The duel, however, gave way to the vendetta and contract killings. There is no reliable historical record of new movie release a duel between mafiosi, but there have been plenty of apostle murders and, given its structure as a secret society. The freemasons certainly aided Garibaldi's invasion of Sicily in 1860 but so, it is believed, did some Mafia bands, even if they were not a decisive factor in his victory. In the thesis foreword same year, it was suggested to King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies that the Comorra, a Neapolitan organization similar to the Mafia, kill Garibaldi and his officers upon apostle, their arrival in Naples. The King refused his subjects' offer. Projects? incredibly, the paul plan might have actually worked.

The Modern Mafia. A famous play, I Mafiusi della Vicaria, first performed in 1863, described the Mafia as an organization complete with initiation rites, though folk historian Giuseppe Pitré's interpretation of Mafia history has been largely discounted as whimsical or at least highly embellished. By 1900, the black hand was identified with the friends of the thesis foreword friends. They were one and the same, and each town (or city quarter) had its resident capo (chief). Paul? When the Fascists rose to projects, power, Mussolini's Iron Prefect, Cesare Mori, threw most of them in prison. In reality, the apostle essay relationship between the Fascists and the Mafia was that of one group of criminals pitted against garden thesis, another - two wolves fighting over the same chicken coop. The wartime collaboration of Sicilian-born Salvatore Lucky Luciano with the United States Navy may have made the aftermath of the Allied invasion of Sicily smoother than it otherwise might have been, but there is no evidence that the Sicilians in apostle paul essay, 1943 were any less welcoming of the Allies than the residents of thesis foreword Piedmont and Lombardy were two years later. Luciano's real influence was at the Port of New York.

The Iron Prefect's enforcement of the Duce's laws had already made most mafiosi sympathetic to apostle paul, the American cause, or at least hostile to the Fascist one. The surrender, without even token resistance, of thousands of Italian troops at Pantelleria, shortly before the main attack on Sicily, made it clear that most Italian recruits were unwilling to risk their lives for new movie reviews, a lost cause - or perhaps for any cause. The Allies made mafiosi like Calogero Vizzini, of Villalba, provisional mayors who easily won election a few years later. Apostle? It was easy for these men, imprisoned by samurai's garden Mussolini's regime without the benefit of a fair trial, to pose as anti-Fascists or even political prisoners. Under any political system, Vizzini, who died in 1954, was a murderer, plain and simple. In the immediate postwar years, as the Mafia set about the task of re-organizing its activities, several freelance bandits roamed the countryside. The most popular, Salvatore Giuliano, came closest to the image of a modern Robin Hood, and supported a separatist movement that favored an independent Sicily, perhaps as part of the United States.

Men like Giuliano were not mafiosi. Indeed, the mafiosi resented and perhaps even feared them. With the death of Calogero Vizzini, the Mafia slid into the realm of what Sicily's mafiosi later derided as gangsterism, a more reckless American style of crime. In 1957, the Sicilian Mafia re-established ties with their brethren in the United States and apostle paul Canada. It was Lucky Luciano, of all people, who orchestrated the alliance. Unlike Vizzini and his generation, the essay new Sicilian men of honor were vastasi (uncouth people) who made no pretension whatsoever at being gentlemen. Whereas, in apostle, public at least, Vizzini and people like him maintained a veneer of civility, and samurai's garden thesis might even pass for dignified country squires, it was clear that newcomers like Giuseppe Genco Russo, Michele Greco and apostle Luciano Leggio, though furbi (sly) in certain respects, were essentially vulgar by nature. Men of honor and the code of honor, if either had ever existed in fact, vanished in a flurry of murders.

By the samurai's garden thesis 1970s, even women and children were not spared in the carnage. While the Mafia controlled building construction (effectively destroying large historical districts) and vast sectors of the economy (the meat trade, for example) and developed a successful heroin trade, the pizzo (extortion through protection money) remained a cornerstone of its system for generating revenue, day-by-day, year after year. As there were not yet laws against organised crime, people such as social activist Danilo Dolci were successfully prosecuted for defaming people who they publicly stated were mafiosi, and who in fact were! During the 1960s, the paul Sicilian Cupola and the American Commission began to seriously cooperate in the narcotics trade, despite their expressed sentiment that heroin and cocaine were somehow less respectable products than extortion and murder. New Movie Reviews? The Sicilian faction was still more ruthless than its American counterpart, often resorting to the murder of judges and paul other public officials, as well as journalists, whose activities they considered inconvenient. Palermo's Falcone-Borsellino Airport is named after two such judges, and there is a monument in Piazza 13 Vittime (13 Victims), at the end of Palermo's Via Cavour, dedicated to the memory of organizing at work people killed by the Mafia. Politicians as Mafiosi. In postwar Sicily's larger cities, mafiosi gradually infiltrated the building trades and bought their way into most government-run agencies. Why are the apostle paul newer districts of Palermo full of ugly buildings but lacking in green parks and efficient parking areas? Because the urban planning was undertaken by criminals.

The Mafia, albeit often indirectly, built nearly half of the new city of Palermo, where several corrupt officials literally sold building permits to Mafia front-men. A similar situation emerged in Catania. And the Mafia built (and still indirectly operates) a few of Sicily's largest hotels. The Catholic Church has not always helped matters. Some priests now speak out against the Mafia (though pastors of thesis foreword Corleone, traditionally a Mafia stronghold, have not usually been among them), and at least one cleric was murdered for doing so. In the apostle essay 1960s, however, a Cardinal Archbishop of Palermo issued a statement that the Mafia had never existed, and that author Giuseppe di Lampedusa, along with Danilo Dolci, had defamed Sicilians by implying that, among other things, most western Sicilians were secretive by nature or habit, and that the Mafia does indeed exist. How does such an clear essay analysis organization survive into the twenty-first century?

It has a great deal to do with social factors - things like high unemployment, widespread lack of confidence in the competence of law enforcement authorities, distrust of the state. But the general secretiveness of the paul essay people is one of the thesis foreword main reasons organised crime is apostle still so powerful in clear admit essay, the Italian South, where common folk often seem suspicious of even the most ordinary social forces. The Italian ethos is apostle paul essay based on the realities of thesis foreword everyday life: Italians presume that their elected leaders are thieves motivated by greed. Businessmen presume that associates will steal at paul essay the first opportunity. Labor unions presume that employers will seek to exploit employees whenever possible. Spouses presume that marital infidelity is simply a question of human nature, and reviews even use a particular word, cornuto, to apostle essay, describe cuckolded husbands.

As we've said, a large part of certain economic sectors (hotels, transportation, supermarkets, construction) are controlled by Mafiosi. In a land without a tangible industrial base, public monies are the Mafia's main target. Everything has its price. Garden Thesis? Most politicians (Left and Right) can be bought, and the same holds true for managers of most larger banks and apostle paul utilities. Pros Cons Action Research? In Sicily, many (if not most) public or semi-public jobs are sold for money or - in rarer cases - sex. Apostle Paul? (An attractive, educated but unemployed young woman is clear admit easy prey in a region with a perpetual 30% unemployment rate.) Public contracts are assigned - actually sold - in exchange for bribes and kickbacks.

Everybody expects a substantial kickback (usually at least 10%), from the politician who gets you a public advertising or construction project to the event organizer who gets your musical group a gig in the local music festival. In business, money laundering is essay a way of life. It's all part of The New Mafia. Pros Cons Action Research Paper? In such a climate, the pizzo (protection money) and apostle essay revenue through legitimate businesses set up with Mafia money are still important. Buying the European Commission. Against such a backdrop, one easily understands that the thesis foreword Mafia is not always the primary cause of organised crime in Sicily. More often, it is a simple symptom of the corruption that permeates almost every aspect of public and professional life in Sicily. New corruption is born every day: In recent years, certain local politicians who have spoken against the Mafia have covertly purchased large sections of Palermo's historical district through front companies (there were no public auctions), and given well-paying consulting jobs to their friends and relations. Sicilians call it mafiosità , the Mafia-like mentality so prevalent in Sicilian life, especially among politicians and business people.

This doesn't always mean that somebody is a mafioso per se, just that he behaves like one. Mafiosetta is the Sicilian term for an attractive young woman who acts in this way. Clientelism, nepotism and the excessive use of apostle essay recommendations to assign everything from public construction contracts to clerical jobs foster widespread corruption, and therefore organised crime. Bribery and kickbacks (the Italian word is bustarella for the envelope, busta, in which the money is paid) are normal in Sicily. Thesis Foreword? Billions of dollars poured into the Sicilian economy by apostle essay the World Bank, the clear analysis United States, the European Commission and apostle paul the central Italian government have ended up in the hands of corrupt politicians, consultants and others who, in many instances, were connected to action research, the Mafia in some way. In many cases, the children or grandchildren of apostle essay Mafiosi and Mafia-collaborators who stole money earmarked for Sicilian development under the Marshall Plan decades ago are now respectable citizens who one would not overtly associate with organised crime. In other words, the families have become legitimate. To many Sicilians, wealth is viewed as an end in itself; the methods employed to gain it are of little importance so long as misdeeds go unpunished. It's no secret that the criminal justice system does not function very well in projects at work, Italy. Apostle Paul? And where there is no law, there is no sin. The sale of jobs is not limited to new movie, banks, national companies (telecommunications, energy, airlines) and public administration.

Until the 1990s, military promotions in essay, Italy (in the Carabinieri and Army) to colonel or general were often based on bribes equal to around €20,000, linked to a recommendation, of course. Hence the lack of prestige attached to garden, such ranks. All things considered, it's no wonder that the Sicilian economy is a disaster. Apostle Paul? It's rather embarrassing when the organizing at work first large-scale organ transplant unit in Sicily (ISMETT) is established only in the late 1990s, and then with the help of an American hospital. It makes Sicily seem like an under-developed country.

Were it not so ironic, it would be amusing to see the deceptive manner in which officials often disguise their efforts to exploit the status quo by overtly supporting pointless anti-Mafia public awareness campaigns while robbing public monies. Sadly, the European Commission and the central Italian government continue to support many so-called development projects in apostle paul essay, Sicily, few of which result in thesis foreword, little more than untaxed wealth for the projects' managers. Indeed, the phenomenon has spawned an entire industry as politicians and their friends scramble to propose projects with grossly inflated budgets. In the 1980s, a new profession, that of the progettista , was born. The term refers to the project consultant who seeks European Commission funds on behalf of a town, association or governmental agency (presumably one lacking personnel competent to know how to manage public money efficiently, as though that were an esoteric art), and then spends these monies, taking a large commission for himself and paul essay his cohorts. To many Sicilians, the progettisti are new mafiosi, or perhaps new robber barons. Considering the release reviews vast investments involved, the tangible results are precious few, apart from expensive vacation homes for the project administrators themselves. One can only conclude that Sicilian progettisti, Mafia proponents or Sicilian politicians have in some way infiltrated or corrupted elements of the apostle paul European Commission in Brussels.

It's a long way from stealing cattle in organizing, the mountains. The Discovery of essay America. Our discussion concentrates on thesis, the Mafia in Sicily . It is worth mentioning, however, that outside Italy, the Mafia and its progeny have been the object of every form of fame that modern society carries in its sophisticated cinematic arsenal. The first films to depict the Mafia in apostle paul essay, an appealing light were made not in Italy, but in the United States, where authors like the late Mario Puzo presented American mafiosi as pseudo-aristocrats. It is an samurai's garden thesis image still bolstered by television and cinematic portrayals despite the fact that the American Mafia, if indeed it ever conformed very closely to such stereotypes, has been overshadowed in its own country by apostle essay criminal organizations from South America, the Far East and Russia.

In Italy, films such as I Grimaldi (The Grimaldis) present the thesis foreword glossy cinematic portrayal of the homegrown version of the Mafia based on the American model, complete with lavish homes, luxury cars and attractive, well-dressed people (its use of the paul name of the ruling dynasty of Monaco implicitly associating mafiosi with royalty). This is an image that contrasts sharply with the reality we see on the evening newscasts - of plump, ugly men with unattractive wives and ordinary cars, living underground as latitanti (fugitives) despite their wealth. When Bernardo Provenzano, a Mafia boss, was finally arrested, he was living in a makeshift bunker outside his native Corleone. On the other side of the ocean, several Italian-American cultural organisations decry the persistent cinematic image as nothing less than bigotry, citing the new movie release reviews (accurate) statistic that fewer than one percent of Italo-Americans are in the Mafia. A few of these organisations, echoing the official position held by the FBI until the 1970s, denied the very existence of the Mafia until it was mentioned in criminal cases in essay, federal courts in the 1980s.

Until then, anti-defamation lobbying garnered some isolated and unexpected results; it was strange, for affirmative action paper, instance, to hear references to the syndicate in American telefilms when everybody knew from context that the teleplays' characters were referring to the Mafia, which American mafiosi usually referred to as our thing or our business. Sicilians laugh at the charming Italo-American myth that the apostle Mafia doesn't exist, but they also enjoy The Sopranos and Goodfellas. Unfortunately, cultural factors have sometimes added to the confusion; to outsiders, New Yorkers Rudolph Giuliani and essay in public places John Gotti seemed to apostle paul essay, represent opposite release, sides of the same ethnic coin, and the negative side of apostle paul essay that coin still appeals to some of America's Italian descendants in search of an easily-acquired cultural identity, the so-called guido. Renting The Godfather trilogy at the DVD store is easier than reading Dante's Divine Comedy . The Freshman and organizing projects at work Married to the Mob were successful parodies, while The Untouchables and Goodfellas presented a slightly more accurate, and apostle essay less varnished, view of the Mafia in clear admit analysis, America. In Italy, the cultural element creates fewer complexities.

Italians recognise that today's mafiosi are drawn from the lowest social stratum, and nobody outside that (rather large) social class would ever aspire to be a mafioso. Collaborating with the Mafia, however, is another story. Apostle? It is impossible to separate the Mafia from today's Sicilian political corruption. Indeed, it is this aspect of Sicilian life which permits the Mafia's survival. Its adaptability has always distinguished the admit Mafia. Apostle Paul Essay? Now that heroin smuggling is passé the organisation has infiltrated many parts of the legitimate economy. This is thesis foreword more than mere money laundering. Mafia front men (often associates not yet tainted by criminal records) have established everything from supermarkets and shopping malls to stores selling computers and cell phones. These businesses - a source of revenue in apostle paul, themselves - feed the Mafia.

So do betting parlors and bingo salons. Crime and Punishment. The 1980s saw greater international collaboration in Mafia cases, especially between the organizing Italian and American governments. The former passed a law against paul essay, associazione mafiosa (Mafia-type association), whose effects are similar to those of the American RICO Statutes. Unlike Americans, Italians refer to organized crime not for the sake of euphemism but because there are so many independent criminal organizations in Italy (the Mafia in Sicily, the Comorra in Naples, etc.). Mafiosi are occasionally (if not routinely) jailed, and sentences are fairly harsh for the worse offenders.

Some of the captured mafiosi have begun to turn state's evidence, actually breaking the code of silence to garden, unmask their accomplices. The most famous of these pentiti is Tommaso Buscetta. Italy has no death penalty, and leftists want to make life sentences illegal. Apostle? Despite the laws regarding Mafia association, the burden of legal proof required for conviction is release reviews very high. Unfortunately, while it's sometimes easy enough to confiscate a chain of essay supermarkets or even a clinic owned by mafiosi (yes, they're in health care too), the related matters of on ban places bribery and corruption in public life are more difficult to address.

Many Sicilians, including judges Giuseppe Falcone and apostle Paolo Borsellino, have literally given their lives in the war against the Mafia. Some of organizing projects Sicily's more prominent politicians would have us believe that the Mafia is nearly extinct. (Perhaps those who promote such a fantasy are themselves involved with it in some way.) Reports of its early demise are greatly exaggerated. Though by now somewhat dated, the most authoritative book published in English on the Sicilian Mafia is the late Claire Sterling's Octopus - The Long Reach of the paul essay International Sicilian Mafia (New York and London 1990). Its extensive bibliography provides a wealth of material for anybody interested in reading further on this topic. Our history of the Mafia presents information on its origins.

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